The methods of condition diagnostics of the auto braking system of multiple units of a motor driven-rolling stock given in the article provides the most accurate detection of malfunctions, allowing to find leakage in any assembly of an auto-braking system, including brake cylinders, and also is highly automated and, consequently, prevents the influence of “human factor”.
Due to obtained advantages, the methods increase reliability and depth of the diagnostics, ensure comprehensive diagnostics of all of the sub-systems of auto braking system units, which make full diagnostics possible.
The reached depth and fullness of the diagnostics in conjunction with the smaller time expenses can significantly reduce failure elimination time as well as cost of diagnostics, repair and maintenance of electric trains, it also improves the quality of repair, and as a consequence, contributes to the safety of the railways.
Kostyukov Al.V., Schelkanov A.V. Methods of condition diagnostics of the auto braking system of multiple units of a motor driven-rolling stock // Science, education, business: materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference for scientists, teachers, graduate students, industry and communication professionals devoted to Radio Day. - Omsk, 2013. - pp. 210-216
Being one of the most important systems, the system of auxiliary machines provides normal functioning of all electric train systems with no exception. To feed auxiliary circuits of DC electric trains one uses a transverter. As a source of compressed air piston compressors are used, and since 2010 a screw compressor package is also used for this purpose. Besides, the system of auxiliary machines includes interior lighting and climate control unit, control and excitation transformers.
The aim of the method development is increasing of operational reliability of auxiliary circuits machinery of motor-driven rolling stock, as well as timely detection and elimination of defects on their initial stage by means of continuous condition monitoring of machinery.
The main advantage of the described above diagnostic method in appliance to the system of auxiliary machines of electric trains is wide coverage of diagnosed auxiliary machines. At the same time, the installation of only 3 current sensors on line wires of transverter generator feeding the system of auxiliary machines system – that’s what makes the method less expensive, simplifies the installation of diagnostic equipment and provides high reliability of the diagnostic system in general.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V., Tsurpal A.E., Ilyushin M.S. The development of diagnostic method for auxiliary circuits of DC electric trains // Science, education, business: materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference for scientists, teachers, graduate students, industry and communication professionals devoted to Radio Day. - Omsk, 2013. - pp. 189-194
To prove the theory on the influence of bearing rotation frequency influence on vibration parameter rates and the influence’s dependency from the bearing condition, the researches were carried out using experimental unit and real bearings.
In order to reach the goal it is necessary to obtain and analyze dependencies of vibration parameters from rotation frequency both for intact and obviously defected bearings.
The subjects of the research were the following: intact bearings, bearings with physically simulated defects of inner and outer races, and a bearing with rolling body defect which formed during its continuous operation.
From the results of the experiments one can conclude that nature of dependency of vibration displacement rates from rotation frequency of the bearing is considerably influenced by its condition.
Zaitsev A.V., Basakin V.V., Teterin A.O. Research on dependency of bearing vibration parameters on the rotation frequency // Science, education, business: materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference for scientists, teachers, graduate students, industry and communication professionals devoted to Radio Day. - Omsk, 2013. - pp.109-112
The production management of metallurgical enterprises solves two tasks: the control of the technological process itself, and the control of the machinery state. In the control of the technological process it is necessary to make it stable, and that is influenced not only by proper operator’s management but from the condition of machinery, as soon as unstable technological process can lead to huge financial losses and can cause accidents. That’s why safe resource-saving operation with observability and controllability of the machinery state is a first-priority task for the enterprise’s management.
This task can be solved by SM™ – technologies of the condition-based machinery operation on the basis of the Automated Control Systems for Safe-Money-Saving Real-Time Maintenance of equipment (SMSRTM™) COMPACS® which allows to equip hazardous production facilities with the comprehensive machinery condition monitoring systems COMPACS®, which have an built-in automatic expert system, invariant to the machine’s construction. That allows to ensure safe resource-saving operation of machinery and carry out condition-based operation with maximum run-to-failure of both machinery and technological equipment of the units, consequently, increasing the efficiency and profitability of the production.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Sinitsyn A.A., Lagayev A.A. New saving technology of wheel rolling mill operation on the basis of the COMPACS condition monitoring system // Theory and practice of machinery diagnosing at the enterprises of metallurgical and energy complexes. - 2012. - p.64
To ensure the reliability of production it is necessary to be acquainted with technical condition of operated equipment in any time, to know exactly the assemblies with critical technical condition and to assume the measures in time to prevent emergency situations. Production output of petrochemical enterprises makes comprehensive technological process, which includes a few hundred units of technological equipment. Failure of any elements operation in the process flow can lead not just to quality or production volume decrease, but to emergency breakage.
Prediction of such failures can be carried out just in the case of comprehensive monitoring of a whole unit, including monitoring of dynamic equipment (pumps, compressors) and static equipment (columns, reactors, reservoirs, furnaces).
The COMPACS® system uses widespread methods of non-destructive testing: vibration, acoustic emission, thermal, electrical, vortex-current, acoustic, optical, and, in automatic mode, carries out the assessment of machinery equipment technical condition, and so ensuring displaying current technical condition by color pictogram, gives warning to the personal with speech transaction and recommendations for the nearest urgent actions, which have to be carried out to ensure equipment operation without breakdowns. Usage of these methods together, not separately, allows to control any equipment.
Machinery equipment with the stationary system COMPACS® allowed to eliminate breakdowns and exclude "sudden" failures, occurred in the places, where the nucleation and development of the malfunctions up to its critical level can`t be traced and, as a result, causes an emergency situation.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. System for comprehensive condition monitoring of equipment of hazardous production facilities – ways and technologies of realization // Kompleksnaya bezopasnost (Complex safety). - 2012. - pp. 45-47
One of the types of high-risk machinery of oil-and-gas facilities is rotor units: pumps, compressors, separators with wide range of power, pressure, speed, costs, working environments, temperatures and operational resources. Failures and accidents of such machinery can be connected with considerable economic losses and possibilities of severe emergencies.
In order to ensure and increase the resource and safety of rotor machinery for the last twenty years the member-companies of Scientific and Production Unit "RISKOM" were developing methods and systems:
prompt discrete condition diagnostics of the equipment according to the requirements of normative-technical documentation;
continuous condition diagnostics of supporting elements by the common criteria and vibration activity parameters;
continuous and discrete monitoring of rotor units condition based on the results of the current diagnostics and forecast of dangerous conditions (accidents, failures).
These developments allowed for the first time to shape and begin the implementation of a new stage – risk monitoring of rotor units for petrochemical industry. Its methodological nature is the following: by the current condition diagnostic and monitoring data there are quantitative evaluation of accident risk occurrence rates, growth of economic expenses and risks caused by the equipment degradation, reduction of safe run-to failure operation and growth of expenses for diagnostics, monitoring, and reasoning of safe residual life prolonging.
Makhutov N.A., Kostyukov V.N., Leshchenko V.V., Kostyukov A.V. Developing and realization of condition monitoring for rotor systems in oil-and-gas industry // Kompleksnaya bezopasnost (Complex safety). - 2012. - p. 35
Operation of motors in unsatisfactory technical condition leads to financial losses, connected with unpredictable equipment breakdown and caused by this violation of technological process. And also, it leads to considerable electric energy expenditure, caused by an increased current consumption.
In some cases, the diagnostics by the current or consumption capacity, perhaps, is the only one method of non-dismountable diagnostics of electric equipment. Such problem occurs during the diagnostics of air coolers and wind-powered generators. Such facilities have restricted access in terms of vibration sensors mounting, at the same time the mounting of current consumption sensors and control of consumed and outputted electric power do not involve any difficulties.
Spectrum-current analysis is the procedure of monitoring of current and voltage signals on motor terminals and their further analysis aimed at detection of electric and mechanical malfunctions (defects) of electric motors.
Boychenko S.N., Tkachenko A.A. Research of dependence of current consumption parameters of electric motor on its health // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2012. - pp. 199-200
Operation of electric motors in unacceptable condition leads to material loses connected with unpredictable failure of the equipment and technological process breakdown produced by this failure, and also considerable expenditures of electrical energy, caused by increased power consumption.
One of these methods is based on that fact that the auxiliary machine systems of each section are independent in terms of ranked measured values. It allows to mark out sections with current references deviation from train`s average values, thereby it points out the section with developing malfunction in the supporting machine system.
It is perspective to develop method for condition diagnostics of electric trains based on spectral analysis of consumption/ generated current. This analysis allows to specify the condition of machine`s different elements and detect specific types of malfunctions.
Physical principle lying in the basis of this method is that any disturbance in the operation of electric and mechanical parts of the machine leads to change of magnetic flux in air gap and, consequently, to a change of a momentary electric current value. Accordingly, the presence of particular frequencies of fixed value in a current of a spectrum of three-phase feed system of auxiliary machines testifies the development of particular malfunctions of a unit.
Thus, for the continuous monitoring of auxiliary machine system it is enough to install three current sensors to the corresponded line conductors of transformation generator.
Tsurpal A.E. Selection of method for diagnostics of auxiliary machine system of electric trains // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2012. - pp. 202-205
The operation of the electric motors, which are in poor health, leads to the direct financial losses, connected with an unpredictable failure of the equipment and, as a result, the violation of flow, and also the considerable cost of electricity, due to the high power consumption.
The diagnostics of the rotary equipment is usually made by the vibration parameter. However, the diagnostics of the equipment by the power consumption parameter has a great potential, since that allows to increase the depth of the diagnostics of the so-called electrical defects, i.e. defects and failures, connected with the electromagnetic forces disbalance. For instance, if the resistance to shaft movement occurs, so it would be reflected in the change of the respective current signal, and in the increasing of power consumption.
The physics principle in the basis of diagnostic complex operation is that any perturbations in the operation of the electric or mechanic part of an electric motor and equipment, connected with it, lead to the changes of the magnetic flux in the gap of the electric machine and, as a result, to the consumption current modulation.
Tkachenko A.A., Naumenko A.P. Research on the dependence of the parameters of the electric motor current consumption on its health // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp. 217-219
Piston compressors are the indispensable equipment of oil-refining enterprises, the failure of which may lead to a significant decrease of production, and costly repairs, increasing the danger to life and health of workers.
One of the problems, arising from the operation of piston compressors and requiring an immediate detection, is a hydraulic impact. The hydraulic shock is a phenomenon, which is accompanied by an abrupt pressure increase in the decreasing space. The hydraulic impacts can cause the destructions of cylinder-piston group details and emergency situation occurrence.
The implementation of the automatic vibroacoustic condition monitoring and diagnostics of piston compressors COMPACS® allows to successfully prevent downtimes and accidents caused by hydraulic impacts. Diagnostics and monitoring are based on the control of the level of vibroacoustic sensor signal, axially proceeding from the cylinder cover at the moment of approach of the piston to the top dead center and the level of condensate in the separator. However, the diagnosis reliability increasing will always be an urgent task.
Sidorenko I.S., Naumenko A.P. Assessment of the possibility of using the characteristic function for hydraulic impacts diagnostics // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp. 215-217