There is a quite huge area of compressor equipment use where its operation safety is a primary and dominant factor. Such equipment is created for hazardous production facilities of petrochemical industries. Receiving not only reliable but timely diagnostics is highly significant for the equipment. The diagnostics provides accident-free operation with maximal operation life of replaceable assemblies and details. In order to achieve this, it is essential to diagnose the equipment within shorter period of time than failure development period. For the petrochemical and gas industries such diagnostic period may amount to several minutes, hours, days, weeks or even months.
Safety and reliable production facilities operation is one of the major problems which can be solved by providing observability for production facilities. The condition of the equipment significantly affects techno-economic performances of the production and technology-related incidents.
Observability of production facilities condition is carried out through monitoring, which is a supervision of production facilities.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Condition monitoring and diagnostics of compressor equipment in real-time // Modern concepts of choice and maintenance of compressor equipment at refineries and petrochemical industries: seminar proceedings. - Moscow: “Research and development Center of Board of Master Mechanics”, Ltd., 2013. - P.122-139
Current level of industrial development requires special attention to environmental safety of machinery operation and processes especially at explosive and fire-hazardous productions. DYNAMICS SPC offers brand-new level of environmentally friendly and resource-saving machinery operation and processes based on computer condition monitoring in real-time.
The implementation of automated control system for safe and resource-saving machinery operation provides accidents elimination, turnaround increase, machinery and facilities processes repair and operation in real-time. DYNAMICS SPC products are certified by Federal Agency on Technical Regulating and Metrology and Russian Technical Supervisory Authority, and approved for usage in potentially hazardous productions.
Monitoring system allows to process data provided by sensors automatically, to eliminate effectless manual labor of data collection specialists, to analyze data and reporting diagnostic results in understandable form. The system conducts continuous measurements and analysis of sensors readings, which makes possible to reveal abnormals on the early stages of failure nucleation and to predict machinery behavior. The instructions for failure elimination and taking the machinery out of service for repair due to actual machinery condition with full usage of its residual life and sustaining its reparability are given to the specialists automatically and in advance.
Kostyukov V.N. We make future safe! // Regions of Russia. - 2013. - №8. - p.48 (http://www.gosrf.ru/mag/rr88/index.html p.50-51)
The basis of reliable and resource-saving machinery operation of potentially hazardous productions is real-time condition monitoring of facilities. This is proved by a long-term experience of using monitoring systems on “Lukoil” refineries. The reciprocating compressors (RC) condition is determined by the number of parameters (absolute and relative vibration of assemblies and RC details; temperature of the assemblies, oil and compressed gas; gas pressure in decreasing space, in suction and discharge manifolds).
Any monitoring system is based on the following efficiency criteria:
Providing safety measures for reciprocating compressors maintenance;
Timely system response to fast-evolving and potentially hazardous defects and failures of assemblies and details;
Minimum costs for the system are determined by the system’s architecture and number of measuring channels.
The results of many years of the research reveal that absolute vibration parameters change due to degradation of assemblies and details structural parameters. The distance between interacting and coupled details determining the machinery condition increases as a result of degradation. Therefore, the absolute vibration monitoring is a common technique for accident prevention and diagnostics of reciprocating compressors.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Fedorinov I.A., Zolotarev V.N. The experience in operation of real-time condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors // Compressors and pneumatics . - 2013. - №5 (July). - P.4-8
Rotating equipment vibration signal analysis is currently the most common method of determining its technical condition. For this purpose, in the signal spectrum the harmonics levels, associated with the defect magnitude, are determined at the defects frequencies. To improve the diagnosis accuracy and reliability the analysis should be carried out not by the instantaneous spectrum, which is strongly influenced by noises, but by the average spectrum. However, if the equipment speed mode is non-stationary, a direct averaging of the spectrum will lead to recognition errors due to the defects frequencies dependence on the rotation speed.
The paper considers diagnostics of rotating equipment with non-stationary operating mode by the example of a rolling mill diagnostics. To obtain the averaged spectrum, a scale transformation in frequency, which ratio depends on the mill speed mode, has been used. Thus an ordinal average spectrum in rotation frequency terms has been received. To determine accurately the speed mode two independent channels are used – a hardware speed sensor and a software channel of an automatic rotation frequency recognition according to the case vibration.
Using the ordinal average spectrum and two independent channels for the rotation frequency determining has provided an accurate and reliable system for the mill technical condition diagnostics.
Kostyukov V.N., Boichenko S.N. Vibration diagnostics of rotating equipment with non-stationary speed mode // X International Conference Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies - СМ/MFPT 2013
The paper is aimed at examination of acoustic-emission signals occurring as a result of imitation and growth of local corrosion pits on steel samples in laboratory conditions. The revealed regulations can be used for establishing the assessment criterion of danger level of corrosive damages on various facilities of different application.
In order to reveal the regulations in the way AE-signals’ features correspond to their occurrence pattern during the metal corrosion process, an analysis of statistic data obtained in the experiment was carried out.
The results of the data analysis are parameters of amplitudes and AE-signal lengths corresponded to corrosion processes. The parameters are used in the comprehensive monitoring system COMPACS®-AE for classification of AE-processes.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V. Research on AE-signals of corrosive processes // Acoustic emission. The technique’s application in comprehensive condition monitoring systems for hazardous production facilities: 3rd International Scientific and Technical Conference – Moscow, 2013. – pp. 249-257
Refinery and petrochemical companies in Russia are operating tens of thousands of machines and pieces of static equipment providing regulation of operating process.
Steady operation of machinery determines production of high-quality goods. At the same time, unstable operating process, sudden changes in operation parameters cause hydro-dynamical problems of facilities, that, consequently, leads to nucleation and development of defects in the weakest point of the technological process – pump units.
The diagnostic and monitoring system operating on the unit allows the personnel to prove the existence of errors in ACS algorithms.
The observability of machinery degradation in real time allows to exclude the emergency repairs and to carry out scheduled repairs of units according to their actual condition.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov An.V., Tarasov E.V. Monitoring in refinery and petrochemical industries // TehNADZOR. - 2013. - № 8. - pp. 44-46
Modern equipment usage in production and transport complex is impossible without application of monitoring systems. Today objects of production and transport complex have different impact on safety, economy and ecology of country - there are technical regulation facilities, dangerous industrial facilities, extremely important facilities, strategically important facilities. It is clear, that condition monitoring of such facilities should be conducted with different classes of systems.
Monitoring systems should provide the obtaining information about machinery condition in necessary quantity and quality for providing observability of its condition. Monitoring systems should allow take further actions considering results of monitoring, thus, providing necessary sustainability of technological system, functioning characteristics for creating its technological, ecological and economic safety.
The systems form a core of automated process control system for resource-saving operation of machinery in real time within the entire enterprise.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Kostyukov An.V. Decision making risk assessment in monitoring systems // Assessment and management of risks in industrial safety. Risk monitoring of oil-refining and petrochemistry facilities: paper of scientific-practical workshop. – Moscow, 2013. – pp. 87-95
The current Russian and the International standards in the field of standardizing parameters for piston machines vibration including piston compressors are reviewed. It is shown that the current standards do not meet safe operation requirements for piston compressors of hazardous production facilities.
The article describes the branch standard "Condition monitoring of hazardous production facilities equipment. Stationary piston compressor units of hazardous production facilities: vibration operating norms" recommended for application at potentially hazardous facilities.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Regulatory-Methodical Guidelines On Real-Time Vibroacoustic Monitoring Of Reciprocating Compressors // Work safety in industry. - 2013. - №5. - pp.66-70
To make an efficient evaluation of wheel-motor unit assembly bearings condition - the research on factors influencing the vibration level is required.
For such a research there was developed a mathematical model connecting a rolling bearing vibration signal level with linear dimensions of a defect and shaft rotation frequency, which shows that the vibration amplitude is proportional to the rotation frequency, linear dimensions of a defect and loading on the bearing.
Vibration level-vs-defect size curves are built.
Thus, creating systems for condition diagnostics and monitoring of EMU-train bearing assemblies, in order to increase the reliability of diagnostics it is important to consider the influence of the rotation frequency and characteristics of the defect mode at different speed rates.
Kostyukov V.N., Zaytsev A.V., Tsurpal A.E., Basakin V.V. Research on EMU-train rolling bearing defect influence on vibration parameters values // Increase of traction and energy efficiency and reliability of electric rolling stock: interuniversity special scientific paper volume – Omsk: OmSTU, 2013. - pp.50-53
Operating experience of machinery health monitoring systems for hazardous production facilities of energy complex, mining and metallurgical industry enterprises has been considered. The difference between condition monitoring and health monitoring systems has been shown.
Condition monitoring systems measure the physical processes parameters, though they do not determine the reasons for their change. Health monitoring systems determine not only the monitoring object’s technical state, but the reasons for its change, as well. These systems use the expert system algorithms for real-time decision-making support with an automatic diagnostics of machinery units’ failures. Simultaneously, the systems automatically detect the failures severity and point out actions the staff should take to solve the problem.
Sometimes in Russia such systems are called the diagnostic monitoring systems. Those, as a rule, are the 1st class-systems, according to GOST R 53564 . The term “real time”, when it comes to condition monitoring, means that the determining the parameters measurement rate, as well as the object condition identification and the diagnostics results displaying, should be adjusted with its degradation rate and even several times outpacing, it in order to eliminate surges and increase the diagnosis accuracy, thus, creating the leeway for management decisions making and compensatory measures execution.
The technical and economic indexes of monitoring systems application effectiveness have been provided in the article.
V. N. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, Al. V. Kostyukov, ‘Automated control systems for safe resource-saving operation of equipment at refining and petrochemical plants (ACS SRSTM™ COMPACS®)’, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, ISBN: 5-217-02971-4, 1999, 163 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Monitoring of Production Safety’, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, ISBN: 5-217-03151-4, 2002, 212 p.
An. V. Kostyukov, V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Increase of operational efficiency of enterprises based on real-time monitoring’, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 2009, 192 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Condition monitoring of the equipment in real-time technology of safe-save maintenance of the XXI century’, Тhe 5th International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies CM 2008/MFPT 2008/ 15-18 July, 2008, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-31-4, 2008, pp 785-793.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-Time Condition Monitoring of Machinery’, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp 1161-1170.
S. N. Boichenko, V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Equipment diagnostic expert system’, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp 1132-1135.
An. V. Kostyukov, ‘Increase of safety and operating efficiency of continuous production cycle enterprises based on real-time comprehensive condition monitoring of equipment’, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp 1164-1179.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-time Condition Monitoring of Equipment’, The 7th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2010/MFPT2010/ 22-24 June, 2010, Stratford-upon-Avon, England, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-33-8, 2010, Paper 236, 8 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-time Condition Monitoring of machinery by the recurrent selection of the noise and periodic components of vibration’, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 205, 13 p.
Al. V. Kostyukov, V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Classification of vibration parameters trends for RTCM’, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 217, 10 p.
A. P. Naumenko, ‘Modern methods and means of on-line monitoring of parameters and real-time health monitoring of piston machines’, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 209, 13 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-Time Condition Monitoring of gear pumps by the recurrent selection of the noise and periodic components of vibration’, The 9th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2012/MFPT2012/ 12-14 June, 2012, London, England, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2012, Paper 259, 11 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, A. P. Naumenko, An. V. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, Al. V. Kostyukov, ‘Standards in the field of technical condition of hazardous facilities equipment’, Industrial safety, Moscow, 2012, 7, pp 30-36.
GOST R 53563-2009. ‘Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Organizational procedures‘, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
GOST R 53564-2009. ‘Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Requirements for monitoring systems’, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
GOST R 53565-2009. ‘Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Vibration generated by rotodynamic pump and compressor units’, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
E. A. Malov, I. B. Bronfin, V. N. Dolgopyatov, V. N. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, ‘Implementation of the COMPACS® systems – providing of safe operation at the plants with continuous production cycle’, Industrial safety, Moscow, 1994, 8, pp 19-22.
V. N. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, A. P. Naumenko, E. V. Tarasov, ‘Comprehensive monitoring of hazardous production facilities’, Control. Diagnostics, Moscow, 2008, 12, pp 8-18.
Kostyukov V.N. Real-Time Health Monitoring Systems of Machinery // X International Conference Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies - СМ/MFPT 2013