Losses – a part of manufacturing resources, which was used without return, production, and even wasn`t used, ie wasn`t functioned, was idle. If an equipment item can not be replaced during repair, there appear production downtime, so the company stop producing, receiving marginal income, and also spend permanent situational costs. Finally, if the failure of a particular equipment item due to lack of observability leads to the destruction of several (all) equipment units, causing an accident, such as an explosion or fire, this situation, in addition to the above mentioned costs, can injure the staff, damage the environment and, as a result, cause critical resources losses of the enterprise.
Monitoring – observation on changes of an object state on order to alert the staff about its limit state during closely adjacent to each other time intervals during when the object state doesn`t change significantly. This means the systematic collection and processing of information that can be used to improve decision support system and as well as for feedback and evaluation.
Resource-saving safety of production involves of the entire fabrication staff in process of diagnostics and elimination of situational costs as main factor of the growth of resource consumption and losses at the enterprise. Observability of wear factors of basic production assets as the main reason of a substantial increase of use of material and labor resources is of great importance. Monitoring of factors of the situational costs, timeliness and purposefulness of resource-saving actions provides objective information environment of organizational and economic mechanism for cost-effective use of resources.
A.V. Kostyukov Cost-effective use of resources for mass production // Oil, gas and business. - 2007. - №12. - p. 54-58
The presented analysis of the ways to increase production efficiency enables the following conclusions.
1. The aim of implementation of the control system for safe resource-saving operation of equipment at the refinery is the increase of the business competitiveness by the growth of production efficiency and profitability by means of the following:
real-time management of the business process on the basis of objective knowledge of production factor condition;
real-time management of all production factors in the framework of the business process;
real-time condition monitoring of production factors, monitoring of their trends and interactions;
transparency of the structure of contribution of every link of value creation chain to a general result during the production process.
2. The most objective and extensive information base of the signals for selection of diagnostic features of production factor condition in refining is the equipment; configuration of such equipment at every process unit is determined by the matrix of equipment classification according to a risk level.
3. In order to create the information base for monitoring system the equipment is classified according to criterion of the maximum damage in case of unscheduled shutdown or decrease in refinery capacity of certain technological position.
4. Invariance of selected diagnostic features of production factor condition under the structure of the control system and form of interaction between its elements enables significant qualitative and quantitative results, but the greatest effect is achieved by a synergy of all elements of the system.
5. The control system based on real-time monitoring of production factor condition and trends of their interaction enables production safety, expansion of process units run-to-failure period, reduction of operation costs and elimination of situational losses. Hence the productivity and business profitability will grow.
Kostyukov A.V. Control of safe resource-saving operation of the refinery equipment (increase of production efficiency) // Oil, gas and business. - 2007. - №11. - p. 58-63
The presented analysis of production efficiency problems enables the following conclusions:
1. The purpose of the control system for safe resource-saving operation of the refinery equipment is maximization (in terms of efficiency) of service life of process units provided guaranteed ensuring of the process safety with the minimum unit cost.
2. In order to achieve this goal it is necessary to develop the control system based on the following principles:
management based on condition monitoring of production factors, monitoring of their trends and real-time interaction during the value creation;
permanent fulfillment of all functions of schedule control at all levels of the system in real-time mode;
design approach in strategic plans realization on the basis of the proposed initiatives;
transparency of strategic and operational management, goals and the results within the enterprise;
vertical decomposition of the purpose and results on the basis of the developed and structured business processes of the enterprise;
standardization of procedures and interconnections between the control system elements during the realization of the procedures of safe resource-saving operation of equipment;
relativity of the characteristics and leading indicators used in the evaluation of the control system efficiency;
cumulative interaction between all elements of the control system in emergency situations for elimination of situational losses and atomicity effect in the process of value creation.
3. Refinery management structure should correspond to the structure of value creation chain in order to ensure a participatory approach to the construction of appropriate system of rewards according to contribution of the personnel to the final result of management.
4. Functionally separate business processes should be managed according to the principles of the targets synergy during the interaction of the elements of network organization.
5. Objective information source for the control system is the result of interaction between production factors and their condition in the process of operation determined by diagnostic features invariant to the object structure and form of connection with the parameters of its condition, which make up a complete group of events in statistical sense.
Kostyukov A.V. Control of safe resource-saving operation of the refinery equipment (production efficiency problems) // Oil, Gas and Business. - 2007. - №10. - p. 48-53
Implementation of ACS SRSM ™ (Automated Control Systems of Safe Resource-saving operation and Maintenance of equipment) COMPACS® at JSC Vyksa Steel Works enabled transition to operation in accordance with the actual technical condition in real-time mode, expansion of process units run-to-failure period up to technological cycle duration. In addition, it enabled to increase reliability and technical readiness of equipment provided 100% capacity utilization and complete elimination of human factor influence during condition monitoring of equipment; to increase quality of timely and targeted actions of the personnel aimed at safe resource-saving operation of the process unit.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Starikov V.A., Sinicyn A.A., Volkov A.M. New high-performance saving technology for operation of metallurgical equipment of JSC Vyksa Steel Works on the basis of the COMPACS systems for condition monitoring // Metallurgist. - 2007. - №11. - p. 38-43
Researches of many years, experience of development, implementation, and operation of the systems for vibration analysis and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors enabled to solve most scientific problems of development and practical use of the methods and principles of condition control, diagnosing and monitoring of the reciprocators by identification of technical condition of the objects according to initial information inherent in vibroacoustic signal. Practical solutions for the following problems have been found:
The set of diagnostic features corresponding with the forms of technical condition, major malfunctions (which emerge separately or at the same time) and operating practices of the reciprocators has been developed;
The standards for diagnostic features corresponding with the forms of technical condition and risk levels of malfunctions have been determined;
Automated systems for reciprocator condition monitoring, which enable accident-free operation, have been developed. In addition, they have been implemented at a number of Russian and foreign enterprises.
Naumenko A.P. Ensuring of safe operation of gas reciprocating compressors based on condition monitoring // Technical regulation and standardization. Risk management, industrial safety, control and monitoring: Proceedings of International Conference. - 2007. - p. 33-53
Long operation of various rotor machines is not allowed in case the number of revolutions is critical. During the start of electric motor, compressor and other machine equipment a critical number of revolutions should be passed as quickly as possible in order to eliminate the emergency.
Rotational velocity of machine equipment shafts is monitored by special devices called tachometers. DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center (SPC) developed specialized explosion-protected remote tachometer for work in explosive zones where the use of ordinary tachometers is limited.
A remote tachometer is designed for use in the COMPACS® system for vibration analysis that is intended for condition monitoring of the equipment of refineries and petrochemical industries. This system is used for continuous monitoring of speed of motor shafts or any other equipment located in explosive zones.
Kostyukov V.N., Starikov V.A., Zub A.Y. Explosion-protected remote tachometer // Sensors and Systems. - 2007. - №10. - p. 47-48
Nowadays during schedule-based repair of MDRS in the depot conditions the pantograph parameters are often analyzed visually, by manual methods. At that an ordinary stop watch is used to measure the time of lifting and lowering of the pantographs, and a dial dynamometer is used to control static characteristic of pantograph pressing. More modern devices and systems are present primarily as single experimental samples.
Smart sensors equipped with microprocessors and wireless communication channels have become very popular recently. Modern smart sensors in comparison with traditional measuring devices ensure the following:
significant decrease in information distortion owing to digital signal transmission through communication channels;
increase of reliability owing to integral functions of self-diagnostics;
possibility of independent analysis of the measurement results through the algorithms for digital processing of the signals;
possibility of implementation of different algorithms for control of external devices, etc.
At the same time the use of smart sensors ensures significant reduction of costs owing to decrease in the cost of installation and maintenance, reduction of losses associated with minimizing of wired connections, decrease in human factor influence, etc.
The paper presents the results of creation and practical implementation of smart sensors system for automatic condition diagnostics of pantographs, which forms part of the COMPACS®-EXPRESS-TR3 (comprehensive system of smart sensors for electric multiple unit sections diagnostics) designed for diagnosing of wheel motor units, brake equipment, pantograph, electrical control circuits, power and auxiliary circuits, insulation of electric unit circuits.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Starikov V.A. Condition monitoring of pantographs of motor driven rolling stock (MDRS) by the system of smart sensors // Sensors and Systems. - 2007. - №10. - p. 33-38
One of the main problems of diagnostics and monitoring of reciprocator condition is the analysis, selection and reasoning of diagnostic features set conforming to the types of technical condition and basic malfunctions of the reciprocators as well as creation and investigation of regulatory and procedural base of diagnostic features.
Fundamental methods of processing and analysis of reciprocator vibroacoustic signal may be divided into three groups:
analysis of variance of vibroacoustic signal in different frequency bands, for example, vibration acceleration, vibration velocity, vibration displacement (RMS value, amplitude);
amplitude-phase analysis, i.e. isolation by the time (shaft rotation angle) and the analysis of vibroacoustic signal parameters within the selected interval;
the signal isolation in the frequency range typical for particular element of the mechanism and the analysis of the parameters of the selected vibroacoustic signal.
On the basis of the model proposed in the article and in terms of well-known researches in the field of vibroacoustic diagnostics it is possible to state the following:
In general, vibroacoustic oscillations can be presented in the form of noise and periodic components.
Vibroacoustic signal at the sensor output is a superposition of oscillations of corresponding force actions and their mutually modulated components.
Such parameters of vibroacoustic oscillations as acceleration, velocity, displacement, and their variation in time during diagnostics are orthogonal diagnostic features of the malfunctions.
Naumenko A.P. Investigation of vibroacoustic parameters of the reciprocators // Engine-2007. - 2007. - p. 518-525
In the practice of vibration analysis and control the signals of vibration acceleration and vibration displacement are often not taken into account. They are considered to be interconnected with vibration velocity signal because these parameters are interrelated by differential-integral ratios. At the same time the search for orthogonal diagnostic characteristics and their use for evaluation of equipment condition is an actual problem because it significantly increases reliability of the diagnostics.
The results of fundamental investigations of vibration processes in machines and attached structures, which have been accomplished under the direction and with the participation of the authors, show that the development of various malfunctions of rotary machines causes diverse reaction of vibration acceleration, vibration velocity and vibration displacement parameters to these malfunctions. These cases indicate significant constriction of the range of diagnosing malfunctions when used only one of these parameters.
Thus, the problem of estimation of independence degree of the signals of vibration acceleration, vibration velocity and vibration displacement emerges.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V. Orthogonality of the signals of vibration acceleration, vibration velocity and vibration displacement in vibration analysis problems // Engine-2007. - 2007. - p. 500-506
On the basis of the analysis of fundamental achievements in the field of theoretical and experimental investigations, which are aimed at determination of major defects and malfunctions of the reciprocators, and on the basis of the analysis of vibroacoustic signal parameters the problem of the reciprocator condition control has been stated. In addition, major challenges in the field of the diagnostics and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors and internal combustion engines have been determined. The main sources of vibroacoustic oscillations of the reciprocators have been considered, the model of vibroacoustic signal has been proposed.
Naumenko A.P. Methodology of vibroacoustic analysis of the reciprocators // MSTU bulletin, special edition "Internal combustion engines". - 2007. - p. 85-93