A task to ensure a guaranteed level of production safety getting the planned result with minimum costs is sharply set to refineries and petrochemical enterprises. The operation and the equipment repair play an important part since these kinds of costs are, in fact, situational and form more than 40% of the processing cost.
The efficiency of refineries and petrochemical enterprises is mostly due to the costs of material and labor resources for repair equipment, and the amount of losses from accidents and downtimes. The rate of the equipment wear is largely determined by the adequacy of operating and maintenance staff exposure to it. If the other enterprises expense item, for example, for electricity, are determined by the production technology, and cannot be changed significantly without a radical modernization and great investments, it is necessary to manage the operating costs and the equipment life. For this purpose it is necessary to ensure the observability of the production complex health by its monitoring, i.e. the monitoring of the operated equipment health to determine the current health and predicting the moment, when it is reaching the limiting state.
A technological equipment of the refinery and petrochemical enterprises includes the dynamic (pumps, compressors, blowers, ACU (air cooling units) etc.) and static equipment (columns, tanks, pipes, etc.) for the diagnostics and monitoring of which various technical means are often used. The world trend of subspecialists technologies of stationary and portable diagnostic instruments of the specific type of equipment leads to the appearance of a large variety of systems, produced by different companies and almost incompatible with each other, that doesn`t allow to integrate them into a single information space - ACS of the enterprise.
An example of a comprehensive approach to monitoring of refineries process unit equipment condition is the COMPACS® system, ensuring the observability of the dynamic and major static equipment of the main process units on one hardware platform with the results of monitoring transferred into an integrated diagnostic network of enterprises Compacs-Net®.
The article is devoted to the brief vibration analysis history, describes the principles of the COMPACS® system operation, gives the examples of its usage, shows the economic effect of the system application and the monitoring methodology.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The Automated Control System for Safe-Money-Saving Real-Time Maintenance of equipment (SMSRTM™) COMPACS is the basis of the transition to the increased run-to-failure of refinery process units // Council of Chief mechanics. - 2011. - pp. 57-75
Insufficient equipping of the most repair shops (of depots) with appropriate means of monitoring and diagnostics of electrical circuits doesn’t allow the personnel in charge of the safe electric trains operation to take reasonable steps for quality and timely elimination of defects, which don`t lead to equipment failure yet. Available instrumental measurement of individual parameters in majority of depots characterizes the condition of specific elements, but doesn’t provide objective information about the health of branches or sections of electric circuits, which includes these elements. This fact caused by distinction of internal interconnection between elements, branches and areas of electrical circuits from electrical circuits operation modes in general.
Thus, during the technical diagnostics development it is required to conduct the research with a view to determine these unit operation modes, in which the interconnection between the available measurement parameters and condition parameters of this unit is the strongest.
According to the task and the main diagnostic signs, selected for condition assessment and which are variables of their condition (current, voltage, voltage drop), the experimental unit for research of the functioning modes of train electric circuits is designed for their diagnostics.
The results and conclusions, obtained by computer experiments, are the basis of the method for power determination of each element (branch) of control circuit with the total current and method for diagnostics of electric circuits at EMU-trains, which have been successfully tested and confirmed high efficiency during the diagnostics of electric train different series real sections at the pilot unit, realized on the basis of computer monitoring hardware and software of the computer monitoring system for accidents prevention and condition control COMPACS®, implemented in a number of advanced EMU-train depots of "Russian Railways", JSC network.
Kazarin D.V. The experimental unit for the examination of the EMU-train electrical circuits functioning mode // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp. 159-164
The experimental data for large samples can be represented in the form of a histogram, which is a graphic (empirical) estimate of the density probability. The number of the experimental data group intervals can be defined with the Williams formula. One can build the empirical distribution function based on the empirical density probability.
Weibull-Gnedenko distribution is used for the purpose of diagnostic characters statistical properties description, since such distribution is versatile enough and covers a wide range of the various processes probability characteristics changes cases by means of the parameters variation.
Along with the lognormal distribution this distribution satisfactorily describes details operating time based on fatigue damage, and mean time between failures of bearings. This distribution is used for an assessment of machines parts and components reliability.
Naumenko A.P. Diagnostic features statistical analysis methods // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp.188-195
Light Gasoline Fraction Isomerization Unit Isomalk-2 commissioned at "Gazpromneft – Omsk Refinery" JSC on 29th of October, 2010, allowed to transfer whole work technique of the enterprise to a new level.
All rotating equipment of the unit: pumps, electric motors, air-cooling units (ACU) are under the permanent control of the computer monitoring system for accidents prevention and condition control - COMPACS®.
The system helps the personnel, managing "Izomalk-2" unit technological process, to obtain the current information on diagnosed equipment condition.
COMPACS® system operation on "Izomalk-2" unit rotating equipment in "Gazpromneft – Omsk Refinery", JSC allowed to implement the unit commissioning saving technologies and begin to carry out the diagnostics of equipment operation based on the actual condition.
The productions equipment with condition monitoring systems and the transition to condition-monitored equipment operation – that is a real way to ensure reliable, safe and stable operation of hazardous production, that , in turn, leads to an increase of production profitability. It is the way Omsk refinery plant operates already more than 20 years.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Tarasov E.V. COMPACS is on guard over new technology // Oil & Gas of Siberia, № 1(2). - 2011. - pp. 24-25
Automatic system for condition assessment of electric-driven rolling stock assemblies. Including wheel-motor units and wheel pairs.
The quality of production and repair of wheel-motor units and wheel pairs was always a priority, since the failures of such equipment are more hazardous over the consequences they can cause. The failures of rolling stock units of railway transport reduce the technical readiness coefficient, which leads to high operating costs in the sector.
The main reason of such situation is the high wear of a rolling stock and also lack of control of units` condition during their manufacture, repair and operation. It is possible to significantly reduce the number of unscheduled repairs and, as a result, the operating costs, by applying the quality diagnostic systems at plants and depots, control and monitoring systems of assemblies of rolling stock in the process of maintenance and current repair.
The system should allow to assess the quality of manufacture and/ or repair of wheel motor units and wheel reduction gear units to detect the hidden defects of bearings, gearbox gears, the lubrication quality and defects of assemblies’ balancing, alignment and fastening.
The various systems for diagnostics of the wheel-motor unit (WMU) of EMU-trains, which are notable not only for design features, but for a methodology, a diagnostic process, methods for defects determining, etc. are introduced and operated in Russian locomotive depots. The disadvantage of these systems is the low degree of the diagnostic process automation, that increases its duration, reduces the reliability and throughput of the systems. The automatic system for vibroacoustic diagnostics of WMU – COMPACS®-EXPRESS is described in the present article.
Kostyukov Al.V., Lagaev A.A., Zaitsev A.V. Assembling quality diagnostics // The World of Transport ("Mir Transporta"). - 2010. - № 3. - pp.70-74
The adequacy of the condition assessment of piston compressors of hazardous production, reliable and timely detection of faults and their causes, the risk rates of piston compressors safe operation are determined by the level of methodological basis development for the organization and operation algorithms of the soft-hardware of systems for piston compressors condition monitoring.
Nowadays, there are documents that define the basic requirements to the organization and the means of hazardous production facilities monitoring, but even for the experts in this field it is very difficult to orient oneself in the advertised capabilities of the systems. Thereby, there arises a need to range the methods and means of piston compressors condition monitoring and diagnostics.
The article dwells upon the development of condition and prospects of modern monitoring and diagnostic methods and means of piston compressors of hazardous process industries. The review of the condition control principles, implemented in nearly all the monitoring systems is made. The present article concentrates on technical means of monitoring systems.
The analysis of the methodology, techniques and principles of systems for real-time monitoring building is carried out. The article addresses the condition monitoring system of piston compressors in real-time COMPACS®.
Naumenko A.P. Modern methods and means of real-time condition monitoring of piston machines // Compressors and Pneumatics. - 2010. - №8. - pp. 27-34
Condition monitoring of the unit is an observation of the changing process of its capacity to warn personnel about the reaching of limit state. It allows transferring the majority of failures from the category of sudden-for-personnel to the category of gradual due to early detection and timely warnings.
The real-time monitoring has some significant differences from "on line/off line" monitoring, which consists in strict regulation of monitoring interval at the level of 10-20% from the fastest failure development of the equipment of production complexes. That is possible on the basis of automatic diagnostics and monitoring systems with functional uncertain structure, which does not depends on the design of the equipment for a wide range of units of production complexes and contains multi-level expert system.
Kostyukov V.N. Condition monitoring of equipment in real time // "Dvigatel-2010" ("Engine-2010"). - 2010. - pp.59-63
The real-time condition monitoring systems of acoustic emission impulses require flexible algorithms for the selection of acoustic emission impulse parameters. Therefore, the research of the characteristics of the acoustic signals, which are generated by the object in conditions close to real mechanisms of destruction, is an urgent task.
The results of acoustic emission signals research collected from the hydro test conducted to BGA 190 gas bottle, which were received by specialists of NTK "Cryogenic technique" together with the group of acoustic emission control of DYNAMICS SPC, are presented in the article.
The loading of the monitoring object was held in four stages. There was a crack at the fourth stage, and the tests were terminated.
Statistic characteristics are defined for each stage of acoustic emission signals, which are corresponded to the object destruction stages. The histograms of the values distribution of such acoustic emission signal parameters as amplitude, energy parameter and duration are constructed. The ranges of amplitudes, energy parameters and durations, corresponding to the destruction stages of the control object, were defined.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Investigation of the characteristics of acoustic emission signals // Innovative technologies in the acoustic emission method. - 2010. - pp.1-13
The efficiency of oil-refining industry is determined in a great measure by the amount of material resources and labor force overhead for the repair of equipment and by the amount of losses from accidents and unit downtimes. The wear rate of the equipment is largely determined by the adequacy of impact on it from production and service personnel. It is necessary to control operating costs and equipment resources. For this effect it is essential to provide observability of the industrial complex condition through its monitoring, i.e. the monitoring of the equipment condition to determine the current condition and predict the moment of equipment`s transit to the limiting state.
The results of the monitoring present diagnoses, gathered from monitoring objects of the manufacturing complex, that are obtained by inseparably adjacent time intervals, when the condition of the equipment does not change significantly. Choice and substantiation of the monitoring object is carried out by analyzing the technological scheme of the plant and the scheme of process units, taking into account the impact of their failure (shutdown or power reduction) on the technological process and the explosion and fire risk across the enterprise. As a result we can define the hazard categories, which are subjected to be equipped with the condition monitoring system in accordance with our program of equipping the enterprise with monitoring systems and the transition to condition-monitored operation of the equipment.
The process equipment of refinery units includes dynamic (pumps, compressors, blowers, air coolers, etc.) and static (columns, tanks, pipelines, etc.) equipment, different technical means are often used for its diagnosis and monitoring. The global trend to use the overspecialized technology of stationary and portable diagnostic tools for the specific type of equipment has led to the creation of a large variety of systems produced by different companies and almost incompatible with each other, that does not allow to integrate them into one information space - ACS of enterprise.
An example of a comprehensive approach to condition monitoring of process units refinery equipment is the COMPACS® system, which provides observability of dynamic and static equipment of essential main process units of "Angarsk Petrochemical Company" JSC on an one hardware and software platform with the transfer of the results of monitoring into an integrated diagnostic network Compacs-Net®.
Kostyukov V. N., Kostyukov A.V., Serdyuk F.I., Yolshin A.I., Kuks I.V., Makhonkin B. N., Mayler V. B., Mukhin S.V., Aktuganov A.N., Dvornikov A.A. Monitoring system COMPACS is the basis of many years of safe resource-saving equipment operation at the "Angarsk Petrochemical Company" JSC // Nefteperepabotka & Neftekhimiya (Oil Processing and Petrochemistry). - 2010. - № 6. - pp. 40-46
The article dwells upon the equipment condition monitoring practice by means of vibration diagnostic systems COMPACS®:
sleeve assembly detail malfunctions;
crank-slide mechanism detail malfunctions;
base bearing malfunctions;
Also, the article gives the specifics of diagnostic and monitoring systems' realization.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. The modern methods and means of condition monitoring and diagnostics of piston compressors. Part 2 // Maintenance and Repair (“Tekhnicheskoye obsluzhivanie i remont”). - 2010. - №2. - p. 16-21