The theory of economic analysis states that any increase in constant costs leads to growth of break-even cost, so it is necessary to make and encash additional products to cover them. The increase of variable costs produces the same effects, but even their slight rise leads to much greater operation lowering of the refinery due to the effect of operating leverage, as the loss of raw materials, energy, and the finished commodity directly affect the value of variable costs and marginal revenue. Such factors as intensity of use, energy consumption and labor intensity influence the loss of resources. Such figures are determined by production methods and can`t be changed without changing of them.
Therefore, the main reason of raw materials, energy, and finished commodity losses during production is equipment failures caused by operation schedule failures, or intolerable state of production facilities. This leads to a suspension of production, faulty production, and in some cases, the destruction of material resources, including raw materials, finished commodity and fixed assets. Size of situational costs depends on the amount of material and labor costs to the equipment repair and the amount of losses from accidents and downtime.
Thus, the main vector of the cost-effective use of resources in the enterprise is prevention of growth and decrease of situational costs that appear during the production, which allows save material, labor and financial resources of the refinery, as well as cut losses of other types of resources - human, environmental, etc. Moreover, the decrease of situational costs allows increase the duration of the production and reduces schedule shutdowns.
Kostyukov A.V. Estimating the efficiency of repairs to oil refineries // Controlling management technologies. - 2008. - №2 (26). - p. 38-45
Monitoring motor driven rolling stock is monitoring of electric assemblies to determine and predict the moment of their transition to the limit state. This is accomplished by periodically diagnostics of adjacent time intervals which are significantly shorter than the failure interval to a critical value.
Automatic monitoring - is an automatic comprehensive diagnostics of technical condition with the required completeness (covering at least 80% of the main faults), spread in time and available to the staff at all levels to make reasoned decisions. This approach allows us to control the state of MDRS by timely maintenance and repair, i.e. maintain and repair only those units which need to be repaired in the upcoming period of operation.
Automatic diagnostics is possible only together with automated expert system fault location, which eliminates the human error of diagnostician and reduces the labor intensity and period of diagnostics.
Linking all diagnostic systems at the depot and on-board devices of sections into a single monitoring system provides timely information about the technical condition of operated and repaired units and train in general, to the responsible staff of depot (plant). At the same time the following problem are solved: significantly decrease of human factor and minimization of errors to a level limited by accepted diagnostic methodology, decrease of labor intensity and duration of diagnostics, providing a small interval of diagnostics and minimization the dynamic errors.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P. On-line monitoring of motor driven rolling stock // Rail transport. - 2008. - №6. - p. 41-42
Determination of the necessary and sufficient number of diagnostic features that allow accurately assess the technical condition of the piston machine as a whole, its systems, facilities and individual parts, based on the analysis of physical processes in piston engine, and regularities of their development.
The applicability of different methods of diagnosis, for example, diesel engines, shows that the definition of diesel faults is possible using the four basic methods: thermodynamic, parametric, spectral ("metal in the environment"), vibroacoustic.
Given the diversity and heterogeneity of primary converters, secondary equipment and methods of signal processing all of these methods can be concluded that the use of vibroacoustic method can significantly reduce development cost, implementation and operation of technical diagnostics of reciprocating machinery.
Many years of research experience vibroacoustic signal of reciprocating compressors, diagnostic and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors confirms that the vibroacoustic signals with a sufficient degree of reliability and relevance not only to characterize the structural parameters of the units and parts of piston compressors, but also adequately reflect the increased dynamic loads on the sites, details of deviations due to physical and chemical properties of the gas required for the normal trouble-free operation of piston compressors.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Problems and solutions for safe operation of reciprocating compressors // Сompressor equipment and pneumatics. - 2008. - №3. - p. 21-28
In the second half of the 90s a variety of diagnostic units, not being linked to a single technological network and having some significant disadvantages, appeared on the railway system:
Subjectivity, i.e. complete dependence of the diagnostic results from the diagnostician.
High labor intensity and long-drawn diagnosis, due to the low degree of automation of the diagnostic process, which does not provide comprehensive diagnosis.
Low reliability of the results due to above mentioned reasons, generating position error as well as dynamic error connected with comparability of the diagnostic period with an interval of errors till critical value.
Unavailability of objective information about technical state of motor driven rolling stock and its units in real time, i.e. pure observability of true condition of motor driven rolling stock.
The implementation of system COMPACS® will realize condition-monitored maintenance of motor driven rolling stock with automatic term planning and volume of works for maintenance and repair only those components and assemblies of MDRS which really need to be repaired. In this case the volume of schedule-based repairs TR-1 TR-2 TR-3 reduced. Real-time condition monitoring increases greatly serviceability ratio of rolling stock. If now it is 0.92, after the implementation of radically new technology of equipment operation, based on knowledge of the technical state of the equipment at any time, it will raise up to 0,96-0,98. This means the reduction of operating expenses of repair downtime in 3-4 times (60-80%) and operation of 15-20 trains of ten cars each without the purchase of new rolling stock.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P. Safe resource-saving operation of motor driven rolling stock (MDRS) based on real-time condition monitoring // Science and Transportation. - 2008. - p. 8-13
The process of development of errors visible requires continuous monitoring, ie diagnostics with a period much shorter than the interval of their development and with the automatic delivery of the objective results. The main task of equipment monitoring system - defect detection, monitoring of their development and timely warning for maintenance.
COMPACS® system is invariant to vehicle structure and implements various methods of non-destructive testing (vibroacoustic, acoustic emission, electrical, ultra-audible, thermal and parametric). The system refer to expert decision support systems, i.e. it must help the staff to take reasoned decisions on the management of operation and equipment condition. The system receives signals from sensors and generates vector of orthogonal diagnostic features, including a dozen types of non-destructive testing. Vector of diagnostic features enters the processing unit of logical predicates, the results of which formed the expert system results. As a result, automatic expert system generates diagnostic requirements on the main as text messages, as well as voice alerts.
Thus, the system provides continuous monitoring of the industrial complex due to aggregation of various methods of non-destructive testing based on a single hardware and software platform which allows to diagnose the condition of the mechanical (mill, blocks, pumps, compressors, blowers, motors, etc.), technology (presses, furnaces, pipelines, storage tanks) and other equipment.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Sinitsyn A.A., Volkov A.M., Kuznetsov O.V. Condition monitoring system COMPACS for wheel-rolling mill // Steel. - 2008. - №4. - p. 58-63
Process equipment of modern productions usually includes rotating and static equipment. Different types of hardware are used for diagnostics and condition monitoring today. Global trend to narrow specialization of the enterprises developing technologies, stationary and portable diagnostic tools intended for a certain type of equipment brings into existence the systems produced by different companies. Many of these systems are virtually incompatible neither by electric, nor by information parameters, so they can not be integrated into a single information space of Automatic Process Control System of the enterprise.
At the same time aufbau principles of the COMPACS® system enable easy configuring its firmware for condition monitoring of various types of rotating equipment (centrifugal cradle-mounted, double-beat and reciprocating pumps, air and gas blowers, fans, air coolers, centrifugal and reciprocating compressors) and static equipment (reactors, columns, vessels, heat-exchangers, pipelines, etc.).
The most important factor, which determines the reliability of monitoring, is presentation and storage of the monitoring results in a single information space by means of the standardization of nomenclature, format and presentation of the monitoring results.
The COMPACS® system, which ensures observability of rotating and the most important static equipment, is the example of comprehensive approach to condition monitoring of hazardous production facilities.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Tarasov E.V. Comprehensive monitoring of hazardous production facilities // Chemical technique. - 2008. - №3. - p. 24-28
Losses – a part of manufacturing resources, which was used without return, production, and even wasn`t used, ie wasn`t functioned, was idle. If an equipment item can not be replaced during repair, there appear production downtime, so the company stop producing, receiving marginal income, and also spend permanent situational costs. Finally, if the failure of a particular equipment item due to lack of observability leads to the destruction of several (all) equipment units, causing an accident, such as an explosion or fire, this situation, in addition to the above mentioned costs, can injure the staff, damage the environment and, as a result, cause critical resources losses of the enterprise.
Monitoring – observation on changes of an object state on order to alert the staff about its limit state during closely adjacent to each other time intervals during when the object state doesn`t change significantly. This means the systematic collection and processing of information that can be used to improve decision support system and as well as for feedback and evaluation.
Resource-saving safety of production involves of the entire fabrication staff in process of diagnostics and elimination of situational costs as main factor of the growth of resource consumption and losses at the enterprise. Observability of wear factors of basic production assets as the main reason of a substantial increase of use of material and labor resources is of great importance. Monitoring of factors of the situational costs, timeliness and purposefulness of resource-saving actions provides objective information environment of organizational and economic mechanism for cost-effective use of resources.
A.V. Kostyukov Cost-effective use of resources for mass production // Oil, gas and business. - 2007. - №12. - p. 54-58
The presented analysis of the ways to increase production efficiency enables the following conclusions.
1. The aim of implementation of the control system for safe resource-saving operation of equipment at the refinery is the increase of the business competitiveness by the growth of production efficiency and profitability by means of the following:
real-time management of the business process on the basis of objective knowledge of production factor condition;
real-time management of all production factors in the framework of the business process;
real-time condition monitoring of production factors, monitoring of their trends and interactions;
transparency of the structure of contribution of every link of value creation chain to a general result during the production process.
2. The most objective and extensive information base of the signals for selection of diagnostic features of production factor condition in refining is the equipment; configuration of such equipment at every process unit is determined by the matrix of equipment classification according to a risk level.
3. In order to create the information base for monitoring system the equipment is classified according to criterion of the maximum damage in case of unscheduled shutdown or decrease in refinery capacity of certain technological position.
4. Invariance of selected diagnostic features of production factor condition under the structure of the control system and form of interaction between its elements enables significant qualitative and quantitative results, but the greatest effect is achieved by a synergy of all elements of the system.
5. The control system based on real-time monitoring of production factor condition and trends of their interaction enables production safety, expansion of process units run-to-failure period, reduction of operation costs and elimination of situational losses. Hence the productivity and business profitability will grow.
Kostyukov A.V. Control of safe resource-saving operation of the refinery equipment (increase of production efficiency) // Oil, gas and business. - 2007. - №11. - p. 58-63
The presented analysis of production efficiency problems enables the following conclusions:
1. The purpose of the control system for safe resource-saving operation of the refinery equipment is maximization (in terms of efficiency) of service life of process units provided guaranteed ensuring of the process safety with the minimum unit cost.
2. In order to achieve this goal it is necessary to develop the control system based on the following principles:
management based on condition monitoring of production factors, monitoring of their trends and real-time interaction during the value creation;
permanent fulfillment of all functions of schedule control at all levels of the system in real-time mode;
design approach in strategic plans realization on the basis of the proposed initiatives;
transparency of strategic and operational management, goals and the results within the enterprise;
vertical decomposition of the purpose and results on the basis of the developed and structured business processes of the enterprise;
standardization of procedures and interconnections between the control system elements during the realization of the procedures of safe resource-saving operation of equipment;
relativity of the characteristics and leading indicators used in the evaluation of the control system efficiency;
cumulative interaction between all elements of the control system in emergency situations for elimination of situational losses and atomicity effect in the process of value creation.
3. Refinery management structure should correspond to the structure of value creation chain in order to ensure a participatory approach to the construction of appropriate system of rewards according to contribution of the personnel to the final result of management.
4. Functionally separate business processes should be managed according to the principles of the targets synergy during the interaction of the elements of network organization.
5. Objective information source for the control system is the result of interaction between production factors and their condition in the process of operation determined by diagnostic features invariant to the object structure and form of connection with the parameters of its condition, which make up a complete group of events in statistical sense.
Kostyukov A.V. Control of safe resource-saving operation of the refinery equipment (production efficiency problems) // Oil, Gas and Business. - 2007. - №10. - p. 48-53
Implementation of ACS SRSM ™ (Automated Control Systems of Safe Resource-saving operation and Maintenance of equipment) COMPACS® at JSC Vyksa Steel Works enabled transition to operation in accordance with the actual technical condition in real-time mode, expansion of process units run-to-failure period up to technological cycle duration. In addition, it enabled to increase reliability and technical readiness of equipment provided 100% capacity utilization and complete elimination of human factor influence during condition monitoring of equipment; to increase quality of timely and targeted actions of the personnel aimed at safe resource-saving operation of the process unit.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Starikov V.A., Sinicyn A.A., Volkov A.M. New high-performance saving technology for operation of metallurgical equipment of JSC Vyksa Steel Works on the basis of the COMPACS systems for condition monitoring // Metallurgist. - 2007. - №11. - p. 38-43