The article considers analysis of existing methods and means for piston compressors monitoring and diagnostics. The peculiarities of the diagnostic and monitoring systems implementation have been presented, the piston compressors main units, which monitoring and diagnostics is of the main focus, have been listed. Architectures and operational principles of the known systems for the piston compressors monitoring and diagnostics have been considered.
Foreign stationary systems for on-line monitoring of the piston compressors parameters exercise control over these parameters, not determining the reasons for their changes, caused by specific malfunctions and their hazard rates.
Real-time systems for the equipment technical state monitoring, proposed and developed in Russia for more than 30 years, are deprived of these drawbacks. The fundamental difference between the real-time monitoring systems and the considered on-line monitoring systems lies in the integrated automated expert system for diagnosis-making, which automatically and in real-time points to the staff the degree of malfunctions development and their danger for the piston compressors and a technological unit, through a "thin" automatic analysis of signals.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Analysis of modern methods and means for piston compressors monitoring and diagnostics. Part 1. On-line monitoring systems // NDT world. - 2010. - №1. - pp. 64-70
The article considers the method of errors standardless assessment in machines assembling, based on analysis of the vibro-acoustic signals, related to unobservable errors in machines and units, arising within production and operation, some of which do not have an adequate representation in relations and intervals scales.
There has been established a canonical equation of connection between the signal diagnostic features and the machine state structural parameters, represented as ordinal scales; where the equation constitutes the first corner bisectrix of an information plane.
Modeling and experimental research results have been presented.
There has been received an assessment of a diagnostic error, caused by a stochastic communication between diagnostic features and structural parameters, which is inversely proportional to Spearmen's rank-order correlation ratio between them.
The vibro-acoustic method allows to single out during running and acceptance tests the machines with large values of errors and send them back for finishing, preventing their operation.
The proposed approach eliminates the need for training the diagnostic systems on machines-standards with known errors and significantly reduces financial and time costs for the diagnostic systems implementation.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V. Errors assessment in machines assembling by a vibro-acoustic method // Assembling in mechanical engineering, instrument making. - 2010. - №1. - pp. 22-28
The technological cycle of the large volume current repair (TR-3), carried out in a depot, includes long and labor-consuming operations of removal, dismantling for audit, repair, assemblage, tests, transportation of the equipment and assemblies and their back mounting on an electric multiple unit. At the last stages of this cycle the repaired, tested and operable equipment can be damaged, as well as its working capacity, being a part of the electric multiple unit system, can be disturbed owing to violation of functional interrelations.
Lack of appropriate means and methods for an objective quality control of repair, assemblage and adjustment of responsible and most difficult systems of the electric multiple unit, i.e. first of all electrical circuits, within a limited idle time at the depot does not allow to carry out a high-quality control of the performed works. As a result, “raw” electric multiple units are admitted to an after repair running and besides undebugged (hidden) defects, which percentage reaches from 30 to 40 %, have many new ones, appeared due to a so-called human factor. Duration of a debugging stage, success of acceptance tests and further non-failure operation of an electric multiple unit in this case directly depends on debuggers’ qualification and their other subjective qualities.
It is possible to change radically the current situation on the basis of automatic systems for comprehensive diagnostics - to transfer the debugging stage from under a contact wire to a repair shop with simultaneous reduction of its duration, as well as to provide the quality assessment objectivity for the repair, assemblage and adjustment of the electric multiple unit equipment and systems and, as a result, to increase percentage of zero defects since the first presentation within acceptance tests. Such systems are based on the automated expert system for malfunctions detection, which excludes a diagnostician’s subjective errors and provides a reliable quantitative and qualitative assessment for a technical state of the electric multiple unit most difficult and responsible systems according to the main regulating documents requirements.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V. Equipment diagnostics in electrical circuits of electric multiple units when debugging and acceptance tests // Control. Diagnostics. - 2010. - №1. - pp. 26-35
Within limited financial resources, companies try to find ways to streamline all activities in order to achieve the best possible results at the lowest cost. Operation and repair of equipment in industrial enterprises play a leading role in solving this problem. Improving of the main and auxiliary personnel labor productivity, security and operational efficiency is of crucial importance, because there are no reserves, due to higher prices for products and expanding markets.
Operational efficiency of continuous production mostly depends on the amount of material and labor efforts for the equipment repair and on the amount of losses due to accidents and downtimes.
Growth of situational costs is induced by higher rate of material and labor resources waste due to lack of timely and targeted response to increase of the equipment wear rate caused by low observability of influencing factors in the conditions of a priori uncertainty.
The essence of technical management of hazardous continuous productions consists of early detection and purposeful influence on rate decreasing effect for material and labor resources waste during the equipment operation, which is provided by the monitoring systems implementation and effectiveness of the personnel actions in real time.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov An.V., Makhutov N.A. Improving safety and operational efficiency of hazardous continuous productions // Monitoring and industrial risk management. Problems of diagnostics and non-destructive testing. - 2009. - pp. 53-65
Automated Control System for Safe-Money-Saving Proactive Maintenance COMPACS® - ACS SMSPM™ COMPACS®
Accidents and breakdowns on railway transport have become more frequent, thus making seriously concerned about the infrastructure objects technical condition observation and control at different life-cycle levels.
Having synthesized more than 20 years experience of continuous hazardous production monitoring and diagnostics for petrochemical, metallurgical and mining industries, as well as experience of railway equipment diagnostics, DYNAMICS SPC develops actively the innovative technology of rolling-stock equipment technical state control, based on real-time condition monitoring - automated control system for safe-money-saving proactive maintenance COMPACS® - ACS SMSPM™ COMPACS®.
ACS SMSPM™ COMPACS® principal components are means of monitoring, diagnostics and integration:
systems for EMUs assemblies and units diagnostics at acceptance tests areas of workshops TR-2, TR-3 (COMPACS®-EXPRESS, COMPACS®-AGREGAT, COMPACS®-RPP);
systems for comprehensive diagnostics of EMUs sections at acceptance tests areas of workshops TR-2, TR-3 (COMPACS®-EXPRESS-TR3);
on-board systems for EMUs equipment technical condition monitoring (COMPACS®-EXPRESS-3);
diagnostic network Compacs-Net®, which unites monitoring and diagnostic systems and provides data submission to different operation and repair control levels.
In order to simplify the maintenance and technical support processes, all ACS SMSPM™ COMPACS® systems are built up on the base of common hardware and software, have a built-in function of sensors autodiagnostics and a general metrological base, including measuring channels verification/calibration methods.
An important feature of COMPACS® systems is a possibility of integration to the diagnostic network Compacs-Net®, implemented at the enterprise. Owing to Compacs-Net® the objective evidence about technical condition is available in real-time for the enterprise chiefs and actionees.
Looking ahead the means of control and diagnostics can be connected to Compacs-Net®, being located at the enterprises-manufacturers of componentry and equipment for rolling-stock and the infrastructure objects. This will allow to create a common information-diagnostic space for the effective technical condition control of railcar rolling-stock.
Kostyukov V.N. Innovative technologies of electric trains operation // Daily transport newspaper "Gudok". - 2012. - 12 July. - № 119 (25080)
EMUs electrical circuits are divided into low-voltage control circuits, high voltage power and auxiliary circuits and in general constitute a complex, multi-element, multiply object with feedback loops and a large number of parameters, and its reliable operation has a significant influence upon the security and uninterrupted functioning of the railway carryover conveyor.
A repair system, designed to maintain an acceptable reliability level of rolling-stock and based on the scheduled preventive principle, has already exhausted its resource of cheap, skilled labor force and is not currently able to provide a high level of safety, keeping to schedule and improving the transportation process quality while reducing costs. Lack of modern and reliable devices for technical condition monitoring is the main reason of EMUs defects and failures. According to the statistical accounting of «Russian railways» JSC, about 60% of these defects and failures occur in electrical circuits.
Achievement of a high efficiency and reliability in the technical condition assessment of complex objects is possible on the basis of technical diagnostics devices, which development and implementation is preceded by phases of the object study and the diagnostic algorithms synthesis.
Electrical circuits can be represented as a single discrete logic device, whose input, internal and output signals have two stable states, respectively, and for their analysis it is advisable to use the mathematical apparatus of logical algebra.
Kazarin D.V. Synthesis of algorithms for diagnostics of electric circuits // Omsk Research Journal. - 2009. - pp. 133-135
Serviceability and performance capacity of repaired equipment is not objectively a guarantee of its correct operation as a part of this or that electric multiple unit system. Relationship between the elements, devices and units can be broken as a result of installation defects, damage can appear while transportation, assembling and subsequent debugging. The defects appearance at this stage of the technological cycle leads not only to duration increase of EMU putting into operation (debugging period), but, in the case of a defect omission, to spoilage and failures on the line.
Improving the quality of the motor driven rolling stock with a simultaneous reducing of debugging duration and complexity is possible on the basis of automated systems for comprehensive diagnostics of repair and assembling quality of the most complex and critical EMUs systems that provide a reliable quantitative and qualitative assessment of their technical condition, in accordance with the guidelines requirements.
The article presents some results concerning development and application of systems for comprehensive diagnostics of EMUs repair and assembling quality. EMUs are widely used at enterprises of «Russian Railways» JSC and at factories which are prospective for the railway industry being a means of improving reliability, maximizing EMUs exploitation with a simultaneous reducing of costs for repairs and speedy reconstruction of repair system on safe resource-saving basis.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V. Quality diagnostics of electric circuits assembling // Assembling in mechanical engineering, instrument making. - 2009. - № 12. - pp. 25-34
Design life of rolling bearings is determined by bearing capacity rating, equivalent load and bearing type (ball or roller). The equivalent load is determined by two factors: static and dynamic.
If the static load is determined by the machine operation mode and can vary within wide limits, the dynamic load is determined by the bearing state - all the roughness and defects in rolling elements and surfaces lead to an increase in dynamic forces affecting the bearing, and as a result, reduce its life. Besides, this decrease in life can be rather significant. Thus, for bearings with spoilage in production, when static and dynamic forces are comparable, the design life drops to 8 times for ball bearings and 10 times for roller ones. This explains the necessity for carrying out rolling bearings input vibration analysis before they are installed on the repaired or re-manufactured machines.
The article shows a dependence diagram of the bearing velocity overall level from the magnitude of the applied radial static load. It has been concluded that when measuring the bearing vibration parameters, we can judge about the magnitude of dynamic forces affecting the bearing, and thus we can more accurately evaluate its potential life.
Solution to the problem of purchased bearings 100% acceptance testing is the application of vibration analysis methods, where through the analysis of vibration signal one can quickly give an opinion on the bearing state without disassembling and micromeasuring. To solve this problem the benchtop system COMPACS®-RPP has been developed.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov A.V., Molteninov A.V., Buluchevsky Yu.V., Karpov S.Yu.,Dvukhzhilov D.V. , Shchelkanov A.V. Benchtop system for rolling bearings acceptance vibration analysis // Assembling in mechanical engineering, instrument making. - 2009. - № 4. - pp. 38-42
There is quite a large scope of the piston machines (PM), where the safety of their operation is paramount and decisive factor. These are PM of petrochemical complex (PCC) potentially hazardous facilities.
Sudden and emergency PCC equipment breakdown threatens not only the appearance of significant economic losses due to downtimes and working capacity restoration, but also environmental and man-made accidents and disasters. In this regard, it is very important to obtain not only reliable, but early diagnosis as well, which can provide trouble-free operation with maximum resource use of the replaceable units and parts.
This can be achieved only by providing a diagnosis-making at a time-interval, shorter than the malfunction development. For the PCC equipment this period can lie in the range from several minutes to hours, days, weeks, months.
The monitoring system of technical equipment COMPACS® allows to control purposefully and reliably the reciprocating compressors condition.
The article deals with methodological principles of operation and repair of reciprocating machines, compressors, in particular the hazardous continuous facilities compressors, according to the actual technical condition using the real-time technical condition monitoring systems. Examples of maintenance and repair on the monitoring system COMPACS® indications.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Solutions to the problems of piston machines safe operation // Assembling in mechanical engineering, instrument making. - 2009. - №3. - p. 27-36
In the course of long-term theoretical and experimental researches the condition monitoring system for the refinery machine and column-storage equipment, which implements the concept of the real-time equipment operation on its technical condition, has been developed. High-precise diagnostics, built-in expert system for recognition of the defects main classes ensured the effective monitoring and the equipment technical condition forecast with an automatic issuance of regulations on equipment maintenance and their execution control. Refineries equipping with such monitoring systems increases safety and operational efficiency, as convincingly shown by the results of its maintenance: a significant reduction of sudden failures, a fourfold decrease of repairs, and the total savings from the implementation of the monitoring system are more than $6 million per year along with 1,5 months payback period.
The article shows a cause-and-effect relation between the situational costs increase, depending on the observability of the equipment condition, and the personnel actions. The analysis of the typical refinery equipment condition and its repair is shown. The concept of the equipment condition monitoring is revealed. The application of the comprehensive monitoring system COMPACS® is described to ensure the safe equipment operation on hazardous industrial facilities by real-time receiving the operational information about past, current and projected technical condition of equipment. The SM™-technology use in refineries production management has been presented.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. Improving the refineries operational efficiency based on equipment condition monitoring // Oil & gas Journal. - 2009. - p. 57-64