To make an efficient evaluation of wheel-motor unit assembly bearings condition - the research on factors influencing the vibration level is required.
For such a research there was developed a mathematical model connecting a rolling bearing vibration signal level with linear dimensions of a defect and shaft rotation frequency, which shows that the vibration amplitude is proportional to the rotation frequency, linear dimensions of a defect and loading on the bearing.
Vibration level-vs-defect size curves are built.
Thus, creating systems for condition diagnostics and monitoring of EMU-train bearing assemblies, in order to increase the reliability of diagnostics it is important to consider the influence of the rotation frequency and characteristics of the defect mode at different speed rates.
Kostyukov V.N., Zaytsev A.V., Tsurpal A.E., Basakin V.V. Research on EMU-train rolling bearing defect influence on vibration parameters values // Increase of traction and energy efficiency and reliability of electric rolling stock: interuniversity special scientific paper volume – Omsk: OmSTU, 2013. - pp.50-53
Operating experience of machinery health monitoring systems for hazardous production facilities of energy complex, mining and metallurgical industry enterprises has been considered. The difference between condition monitoring and health monitoring systems has been shown.
Condition monitoring systems measure the physical processes parameters, though they do not determine the reasons for their change. Health monitoring systems determine not only the monitoring object’s technical state, but the reasons for its change, as well. These systems use the expert system algorithms for real-time decision-making support with an automatic diagnostics of machinery units’ failures. Simultaneously, the systems automatically detect the failures severity and point out actions the staff should take to solve the problem.
Sometimes in Russia such systems are called the diagnostic monitoring systems. Those, as a rule, are the 1st class-systems, according to GOST R 53564 . The term “real time”, when it comes to condition monitoring, means that the determining the parameters measurement rate, as well as the object condition identification and the diagnostics results displaying, should be adjusted with its degradation rate and even several times outpacing, it in order to eliminate surges and increase the diagnosis accuracy, thus, creating the leeway for management decisions making and compensatory measures execution.
The technical and economic indexes of monitoring systems application effectiveness have been provided in the article.
V. N. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, Al. V. Kostyukov, ‘Automated control systems for safe resource-saving operation of equipment at refining and petrochemical plants (ACS SRSTM™ COMPACS®)’, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, ISBN: 5-217-02971-4, 1999, 163 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Monitoring of Production Safety’, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, ISBN: 5-217-03151-4, 2002, 212 p.
An. V. Kostyukov, V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Increase of operational efficiency of enterprises based on real-time monitoring’, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 2009, 192 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Condition monitoring of the equipment in real-time technology of safe-save maintenance of the XXI century’, Тhe 5th International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies CM 2008/MFPT 2008/ 15-18 July, 2008, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-31-4, 2008, pp 785-793.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-Time Condition Monitoring of Machinery’, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp 1161-1170.
S. N. Boichenko, V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Equipment diagnostic expert system’, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp 1132-1135.
An. V. Kostyukov, ‘Increase of safety and operating efficiency of continuous production cycle enterprises based on real-time comprehensive condition monitoring of equipment’, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp 1164-1179.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-time Condition Monitoring of Equipment’, The 7th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2010/MFPT2010/ 22-24 June, 2010, Stratford-upon-Avon, England, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-33-8, 2010, Paper 236, 8 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-time Condition Monitoring of machinery by the recurrent selection of the noise and periodic components of vibration’, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 205, 13 p.
Al. V. Kostyukov, V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Classification of vibration parameters trends for RTCM’, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 217, 10 p.
A. P. Naumenko, ‘Modern methods and means of on-line monitoring of parameters and real-time health monitoring of piston machines’, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 209, 13 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-Time Condition Monitoring of gear pumps by the recurrent selection of the noise and periodic components of vibration’, The 9th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2012/MFPT2012/ 12-14 June, 2012, London, England, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2012, Paper 259, 11 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, A. P. Naumenko, An. V. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, Al. V. Kostyukov, ‘Standards in the field of technical condition of hazardous facilities equipment’, Industrial safety, Moscow, 2012, 7, pp 30-36.
GOST R 53563-2009. ‘Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Organizational procedures‘, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
GOST R 53564-2009. ‘Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Requirements for monitoring systems’, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
GOST R 53565-2009. ‘Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Vibration generated by rotodynamic pump and compressor units’, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
E. A. Malov, I. B. Bronfin, V. N. Dolgopyatov, V. N. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, ‘Implementation of the COMPACS® systems – providing of safe operation at the plants with continuous production cycle’, Industrial safety, Moscow, 1994, 8, pp 19-22.
V. N. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, A. P. Naumenko, E. V. Tarasov, ‘Comprehensive monitoring of hazardous production facilities’, Control. Diagnostics, Moscow, 2008, 12, pp 8-18.
Kostyukov V.N. Real-Time Health Monitoring Systems of Machinery // X International Conference Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies - СМ/MFPT 2013
DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center offers a brand new level of environmentally friendly resource-saving and safe operation of machinery and processes on the basis of real-time computer condition monitoring.
The basis of the technology is the COMPACS® computer system for condition monitoring of machinery - the DYNAMICS’ very own development. The company’s experts brought to life 40 years of experience in design and implementation of vibration analysis systems and latest achievements among global scientific and technical ideas in the form of a new proprietary product, which has no equals anywhere in the world.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov An.V. Environmentally friendly systems and technologies of safe resource-saving operation of machinery on the basis of real-time computer condition monitoring // Nota Bene. Osoboe vnimanie, 2013. - №5. - pp.28-29
Large amount of various tools for diagnostics and control cannot guarantee the industrial and maintenance enterprises a good-quality assessment of machinery condition. As a rule, these tools are not unified and lacking of a single database of controlled parameters and results, as well as claimed metrological characteristics, also, often, the producers provide no maintenance services.
As a result, only one third of an enterprise’s control tools is actually operating. However, one more problem exists: to get some practical effect from the diagnostic and control results they should be available to all management levels.
In order to determine equipment state in technical field a few systems and devices were analyzed, in particular.
The known analogs have one main disadvantage – narrow functionality which cannot provide full diagnostics of EMU-train equipment and leads to considerable effect of human factor on the results of condition assessment.
The specified problems’ solution can be reached through condition monitoring and creation of automated control systems.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Kazarin D.V., Schelkanov A.V. Automatic control system for safe resource-saving operation and repair of rolling stock equipment at suburban passenger train // Bulletin of The Institute of Natural Monopolies Research: Railway Equipment magazine. - 2013. - №1. - pp.62-66.
Plain bearings are one of the most critical assemblies. Their faults are accompanied with local overheating, babbit hardening on the shaft, shaft neck score, shaft seizure. The repair is quite laboursome and requires large time consumptions. To avoid expensive and continuous repairs it is necessary to control the assembly’s quality both in operation and repair/maintenance.
The diagnostic of the assembly in operation by vibration-diagnostic methods can be carried out by, for instance, the stationary system COMPACS® or the portable system Compacs®-micro™.
Repair or maintenance usually contains checking of an assembly’s geometrics, such as out-of-roundness, clearances, etc. However, the geometrics of assembly parts cannot be complete criteria for quality assessment, since it is not allowing to detect hidden defects. Among the most “dangerous” details are plain bearing liners. The most common ones – are double-layered plain bearing liners, which consists of a firm solid shell and anti-friction lining.
The statistics shows, that among the liner’s defects the most often are: lamination (separation of shell and lining layers) and unevenness (air bubbles and slag shots). The danger from such defects is caused by the possibility of sudden breakdown of defected liner and consequently fast destruction of the assembly. In order to detect the defects a bench ultrasonic control system for plain half bearings COMPACS®-USD was developed.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Schelkanov A.V. Bench ultrasonic control system for plain bearing liners COMPACS-USD // Assembly in mechanical engineering, instrument making. - 2013. - №1. - pp.26-28.
For more than 20 years DYNAMICS SPC is developing and implementing the technology of safe resource-saving operation of machinery ACS COMPACS®, based on complex systems of real-time condition monitoring – COMPACS®, which includes automatic expert decision-making system.
The COMPACS® system carry out real-time condition monitoring of equipment, automatically diagnosis the object and checks whether the prescriptions are fulfilled with no interference of diagnostic specialists. Therefore, the influence of human factor is minimized to personnel’s sluggishness or lack of spare parts.
The implementation of automatic control system for safe resource-saving operation of machinery COMPACS® ensures enterprises with nature-friendly technology of economically-efficient safety which eliminates accidents, increases run-to-failure periods, provides operation and repair of technological complexes machinery based on its actual condition in real-time.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov An.V., Sinitsyn A.A. Automatic control systems for safe resource-saving operation on the basis of real-time condition monitoring // Machinery operation problems and ways of increasing the reliability of reforming, hydrotreating and hydrocracking units: discus. mater. - Moscow: "Scientific and Technical Center under the Council of Chief Mechanics", 2013. - pp.79-85.
Increased number of incidents and emergencies on railway transport make us become seriously aware of handling the problem of control and condition monitoring of equipment of all infrastructural assets at all life-cycle phases. It is widely known that the lack of objective quality control of manufacturing and repair of equipment at the stages of production and maintenance and the lack of observability of the real condition degradation processes during the operation keep us from taking reasonable, both economically and technically effective actions for maintaining a high equipment reliability level promptly.
Availability of a big number of various monitoring and control tools at the disposal of manufacturing and service enterprises is no guarantee for high quality equipment condition assessment. These tools are not universalized in general, there is no consolidated base of monitored parameters and testing results, the required metrological performance is not maintained, support service are frequently non-provide. As a result, is that only about one third of technical control means are available in the enterprises' arsenal on-stream. However, there is another problem, because to get the practical importance for monitoring and testing results there must be observable to all levels of management hierarchy at any time.
Solution of the denoted problems is achieved by the development of condition monitoring and automated control systems .
Summarizing over 20 years experience of monitoring and diagnosing of critical equipment of continuous dangerous productions of petrochemical, iron and steel, and mining industries and the experience of rail transport equipment diagnosing DYNAMICS SPC now actively develops the innovative management engineering of rolling stock equipment condition based on real-time monitoring - automated control system of safe resource-saving operation and maintenance of equipment COMPACS®.
The purpose of the COMPACS® implementation and development is increasing the railway transport safety and providning continuous operation by efficient condition control of rolling stock equipment and infrastructural assets based on uninterrupted automatic real-time condition monitoring.
Kostykov V.N. Monitoring of production. Moscow: Mashinostroyenie, 2002. - 224 p.
Kostykov V.N., Kostykov A.V. Increase of operational efficiency of enterprises based on real-time monitoring. Moscow: Mashinostroyenie, 2009. - 192 p.
Kostykov V.N., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P., Kostykov A.V. Continuous monitoring of motor driven rolling stock // Railway transport. - 2008. - №6. - p. 41-42.
Kostykov V.N., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P., Kostykov A.V., Kazarin D.V. Automated diagnostics of MDRS electric circuits // Railway transport. - 2010. - №5. - p. 56-58.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Kazarin D.V., Schelkanov A.V. Automated control system of safe resource-saving operation and maintenance of rolling stock equipment of suburban passenger trains // Railway equipment. Special issue Innotrans 2012. - Sept. - Р.101-102
The main goal of equipping hazardous production facilities with a comprehensive monitoring system is ensuring safe resource-saving operation of equipment through preliminary control actions aimed at provision of required level of a technological system’s stability and quality of functioning, as well as making necessary margin of its technogenic, ecological and economic safety. Such features of the comprehensive monitoring system make real-time Manufacturing Execution Systems - MES.
Frequency rates of receiving the information on the technical condition of hazardous production facilities is determined by its fault development speed, and in order to ensure the condition observability, the speed has to be several times smaller than the duration of a fault development up to the limit state in the object of monitoring.
When selecting monitoring objects, the equipment category is set on the basis of risk analysis matrix. Equipment’s criticality level is determined by the importance of a unit on which the equipment operates, as well as the probability of failure during the operation and the degree of technogenic danger, which involves high potential wear rate.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Makhutov N.A. Real-time monitoring of operational risks and condition of machinery – the basis of industrial safety // Federal guide. - 2012. - Vol. 26. - P. 321-326
The article dwells upon the COMPACS® system for comprehensive condition monitoring of machinery and equipment on the example of DCU 21- 10/ЗM of Omsk Refinery.
Equipping the machinery with the stationary COMPACS® system has allowed to eliminate accidents and so called "sudden failures". "Sudden" are those failures which has no observability of faults nucleation and development, their further growth into emergency situation.
Application of the COMPACS® system at the DCU in real production conditions for the first time has allowed to analyze its operation and determine procedure areas where accidents appear. The system automatically indicate the worst area, capturing not only the temperature, but its growth speed and gradients, and issues an expert system message on "unacceptable changing speed and temperature difference" in the section which appeared during coke was being cooling down.
All data on the equipment condition diagnosed by the COMPACS® system are transmitted through the diagnostic network Compacs-Net® to the workplaces of heads of all services and departments in charge of safety and operation of units: through Compacs-Net® the users get the full picture of both machinery and processing equipment’s operability. This allows not only to see the unit condition in general, but also efficiently control personnel’s actions prompted by the system, and also control accuracy of the process conduction.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The system of comprehensive condition monitoring of hazardous production facilities: ways and technologies of implementation // Problems of sustainability of countries and regions in crisis and disasters of modern civilization: materials of the XVII Intern. scientific and practical conf. - Moscow: FGBU GO ChS (FC), 2012. - pp. 167-174
The provision of safe and trouble-free operation of machinery of hazardous production facilities, which significantly influences the technical and economic indexes of production and the occurrence of technogenic incidents, is inextricably connected with the control of machinery performance in real-time.
Today on the majority of enterprises the performance management of repair service as well as its subsidiaries is carried out in two ways. On the one hand, it is carried out by the checking the expenses compliance to the nomenclature and the costs of the approved budget items; on the other hand – by the calculation of the numbers of accidents and incidents caused by skipping of machinery failures and determining the situational losses of machinery or the shutdown.
However, the leading enterprises have already passed on to the observation of the interaction of the production system elements by the introduction of the real-time monitoring system COMPACS®. All this allows to influence the factors of the result achievement, which is, in fact, the essence of the management department of any organization. Through the monitoring of machinery condition it is possible to identify not only the quality of the main and auxiliary personnel, but also the amount of work performed. In this regard, in order to save the resources and reduce the expenses of manufacturing complex it is possible to remove the operating and repair personnel from the complex and transfer them to the separate organization departments. The objective and timely information about the status of the machinery service acts as a link integrating these departments into a common production system.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Gavrin S.V., Kozlov A.A., Yatsyuk N.V. The development of the machinery diagnostic systems // World of oil products. The Oil Companies’ Bulletin – 2012. – № 8. – pp. 43-46