A bearing is a main element, influencing work capacity of any machinery unit, since the reliability of the bearing sets a limit on the unit operation life.
The usage of the diagnostic means of machinery condition at all stages of its life: fabrication, mounting, operation, repair, allows timely detection of errors, elements of a low quality, elements which condition is critical or near critical, and to take proper measures in order to increase the reliability of the machinery.
The article dwells upon the issues of the diagnostics of the machinery, rolling bearings directly in operation.
Kostyukov V.N., Tarasov E.V. The research on the vibration-acoustic features of rolling bearings of high-voltage electric motors in operation // Glavniy Energetic (Chief power engineer). - 2011. - №8. - pp. 65-68
Observability of the machinery degradation process in real time allows to eliminate emergency repairs and carry out the scheduled condition-monitored repairs only, which ensures total elimination of emergencies.
Resource-saving is not only the reduction of material resources consumption, but, also, the reduction of labour and financial resources expenditures on elimination of accidents consequences, machinery break-downs and downtime losses. The real growth of the units’ run-to-failure period up to 2-5 years, which nowadays all companies demands from the plants, is impossible without implementation of the COMPACS® monitoring systems – basic element of safe resource-saving operation of petrochemical plants and refineries.
Highly reliable diagnostics can be proved each time after the shutdown and decommissioning of a unit by a personnel due to the system warning. This is a source of emergencies and losses elimination, the increase of run-to-failure time, with the usage of the full machinery resource, decrease of all kinds of expenses, substantial speeding-up of the commissioning process.
At the same time, the COMPACS® systems structure allows to configure its software and hardware easily in order to conduct monitoring of the different kind of the equipment – centrifugal, console and double-seat pumps, air- and gas-blowers, fans and air-cooling devices, centrifugal and piston compressors, etc.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. Innovative systems of vibration-acoustic monitoring of the machinery condition - COMPACS // Neftepererabotka i neftechimiya (Refining and Petrochemistry). - 2011. - №8. - pp. 3-11
During the operation of the COMPACS® condition monitoring system the resource-saving technology of a wheel-rolling mill operation at "Vyksa Steel Works" JSC was tested, besides there wasn`t no breakdown and no incident due to a sudden equipment failure.
Implemented at "Vyksa Steel Works", JSC the equipment operation technology based on its actual health of the Automated Control System for Safe-Money-Saving Real-Time Maintenance of equipment (SMSRTM™) COMPACS® allows by equipping hazardous production units with systems for integrated health monitoring to provide a safe resource-saving equipment operation, to switch to operation based on actual health of machines and technological equipment, to improve significantly the efficiency and profitability of production.
The required stability reserve of the technological system, its operation quality, the necessary reserve of its technological, environmental and economic safety are achieved by the observability of hazardous production units health in the process of technological mode, during the process of technological mode, automatic scheduling of equipment repairs and maintenance depending on its condition and timely taking measures, ensured breakdowns absence and minimal production costs.
Kostyukov. V.N., Sinitsyn A.A., Kuznetsov O.V., Rubanenko A.S., Rykin A.V. The resource-saving technology of metallurgical equipment operation based on the COMPACS condition monitoring system // Stal (Steel). - 2011. - No. 8. - pp.2-5
A cooperation of Omsk Refinery with the Scientific and Production Center "Dynamics" began in 1989. In September, 1990, the industry's first stationary system for vibration diagnostics of NSD-type pump units was implemented on the deasphalting unit 36/1-3, for the first time the parameter of acceleration was applied as a diagnostic sign.
Thus, Omsk refinery made its first steps on the way to providing security of units of dynamic equipment by the implementation of the COMPACS® systems for automatic condition monitoring and diagnostics.
For more than 20-year history of the cooperation, about 2000 units of 27 assemblies, standing in a key position in the process, were equipped with the COMPACS® systems at Omsk Refinery. The highest rang tests of the COMPACS® technologies were repeatedly conducted at Omsk refinery, in this case, all outputted inferences confirmed the urgency of problems solving by the COMPACS® systems and reflected the revolutionary role of Omsk Refinery in issues of safety provision.
One of the decisive conditions for the Omsk Refinery formation as one of the world leaders in the oil refining industry was the use of safe resource-saving technology of equipment operation on the basis of automatic diagnostics and condition monitoring in real time COMPACS®.
Kostyukov V.N. Time-proved cooperation // Neft & Gaz Sibiry (Oil & gas of Siberia). - 2011. - №. 3(4). - August. - p.22
Due to many years of the fundamental and applied researches, and also to wide-ranging implementation of the COMPACS® systems for automatic diagnostics and comprehensive monitoring of equipment condition to the refineries and petrochemical enterprises in Russia and the CIS, Scientific Production center "Dynamics" has developed the national standards of Russian Federation in the field of equipment condition monitoring of hazardous industries, which put into effect from the last January by the Federal Agency of technical regulation and metrology.
The above mentioned standards allow to switch from schedule-based preventive repair to the safe resource-saving operation of hazardous industrial based on the actual condition with the stationary monitoring systems in real time. A technology of equipment safe resource-saving operation is designed by DYNAMICS SPC and recommended by the State mine technical inspection and the Ministry of fuel and energy of Russian Federation in 1994, when the first guidance document came out and allowed to switch from schedule-based preventive repair to the equipment operation control according to the real-time condition monitoring by the COMPACS® systems.
Taking into account that the development rate of the malfunction is limited, based on the required period of measurement channels polling, the usage of series-parallel distributed system structure is expedient for providing piston compressors condition monitoring. Such system makes it is easier and cheaper to provide the explosion safety of the measuring circuits.
Joint rates of the vector of the centrifugal pump and compressor units vibration parameters, including not only the traditional vibration velocity and vibration displacement, but also the vibration acceleration and the growth rate of vibration parameters of the centrifugal pump and compressor units, which are still not normalized in any international standard or standards of other countries, were published for the first time in the world.
The rates were refined and expanded for the most units, operated on the refineries and petrochemical enterprises in Russia, in standards by "Russian technical expertise" association, SIU (scientific - industrial union) “RISKOM” and GOST R, which were published later.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The innovative technology of safe resource-saving operation of technological complex of refineries and petrochemical companies // Oil & Gas Journal. - 2011. - №. 8. - August. - pp.58-59
The necessary and sufficient requirements to functional, diagnostic, information, and other diagnostics and monitoring systems capabilities (SDM) are defined in GOST R 53563 and GOST R 53564 and the modern level of information-measuring equipment development provides an opportunity to collect and process the data synchronously and asynchronously through multiple channels with the reference to the shaft rotation angle in a given range of frequencies - from shares and units of Hz to several MHz.
It is advisable to use the power of computers and digital signal processors to calculate the diagnostic signs of malfunctions. However, the determining factor of the data-processing system development for piston machines monitoring management is the cost. In this case, as a rule, the main problem is to provide the system explosion safety.
Taking into account that the development rate of the malfunction is limited, based on the required period of measurement channels polling, the usage of series-parallel distributed system structure seems to be expedient for providing piston compressors condition monitoring. In such a system it is easier and cheaper to provide the explosion safety of the measuring circuits.
The most optimized from these points of view (the cost of one channel, explosion safety) is the COMPACS® automated system for safe resource-saving operation of equipment of refineries and petrochemical enterprises (SMSRTM™), realizing the SMСD™ - strategy of minimum cost diagnostics.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Development and implementation of diagnostic and monitoring systems of piston compressors // Kompressornaya technica i pnevmatica (Compressors and Pneumatics). - 2011. - № 5 (July). - pp.31-36
A task to ensure a guaranteed level of production safety getting the planned result with minimum costs is sharply set to refineries and petrochemical enterprises. The operation and the equipment repair play an important part since these kinds of costs are, in fact, situational and form more than 40% of the processing cost.
The efficiency of refineries and petrochemical enterprises is mostly due to the costs of material and labor resources for repair equipment, and the amount of losses from accidents and downtimes. The rate of the equipment wear is largely determined by the adequacy of operating and maintenance staff exposure to it. If the other enterprises expense item, for example, for electricity, are determined by the production technology, and cannot be changed significantly without a radical modernization and great investments, it is necessary to manage the operating costs and the equipment life. For this purpose it is necessary to ensure the observability of the production complex health by its monitoring, i.e. the monitoring of the operated equipment health to determine the current health and predicting the moment, when it is reaching the limiting state.
A technological equipment of the refinery and petrochemical enterprises includes the dynamic (pumps, compressors, blowers, ACU (air cooling units) etc.) and static equipment (columns, tanks, pipes, etc.) for the diagnostics and monitoring of which various technical means are often used. The world trend of subspecialists technologies of stationary and portable diagnostic instruments of the specific type of equipment leads to the appearance of a large variety of systems, produced by different companies and almost incompatible with each other, that doesn`t allow to integrate them into a single information space - ACS of the enterprise.
An example of a comprehensive approach to monitoring of refineries process unit equipment condition is the COMPACS® system, ensuring the observability of the dynamic and major static equipment of the main process units on one hardware platform with the results of monitoring transferred into an integrated diagnostic network of enterprises Compacs-Net®.
The article is devoted to the brief vibration analysis history, describes the principles of the COMPACS® system operation, gives the examples of its usage, shows the economic effect of the system application and the monitoring methodology.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The Automated Control System for Safe-Money-Saving Real-Time Maintenance of equipment (SMSRTM™) COMPACS is the basis of the transition to the increased run-to-failure of refinery process units // Council of Chief mechanics. - 2011. - pp. 57-75
Insufficient equipping of the most repair shops (of depots) with appropriate means of monitoring and diagnostics of electrical circuits doesn’t allow the personnel in charge of the safe electric trains operation to take reasonable steps for quality and timely elimination of defects, which don`t lead to equipment failure yet. Available instrumental measurement of individual parameters in majority of depots characterizes the condition of specific elements, but doesn’t provide objective information about the health of branches or sections of electric circuits, which includes these elements. This fact caused by distinction of internal interconnection between elements, branches and areas of electrical circuits from electrical circuits operation modes in general.
Thus, during the technical diagnostics development it is required to conduct the research with a view to determine these unit operation modes, in which the interconnection between the available measurement parameters and condition parameters of this unit is the strongest.
According to the task and the main diagnostic signs, selected for condition assessment and which are variables of their condition (current, voltage, voltage drop), the experimental unit for research of the functioning modes of train electric circuits is designed for their diagnostics.
The results and conclusions, obtained by computer experiments, are the basis of the method for power determination of each element (branch) of control circuit with the total current and method for diagnostics of electric circuits at EMU-trains, which have been successfully tested and confirmed high efficiency during the diagnostics of electric train different series real sections at the pilot unit, realized on the basis of computer monitoring hardware and software of the computer monitoring system for accidents prevention and condition control COMPACS®, implemented in a number of advanced EMU-train depots of "Russian Railways", JSC network.
Kazarin D.V. The experimental unit for the examination of the EMU-train electrical circuits functioning mode // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp. 159-164
The experimental data for large samples can be represented in the form of a histogram, which is a graphic (empirical) estimate of the density probability. The number of the experimental data group intervals can be defined with the Williams formula. One can build the empirical distribution function based on the empirical density probability.
Weibull-Gnedenko distribution is used for the purpose of diagnostic characters statistical properties description, since such distribution is versatile enough and covers a wide range of the various processes probability characteristics changes cases by means of the parameters variation.
Along with the lognormal distribution this distribution satisfactorily describes details operating time based on fatigue damage, and mean time between failures of bearings. This distribution is used for an assessment of machines parts and components reliability.
Naumenko A.P. Diagnostic features statistical analysis methods // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp.188-195
Light Gasoline Fraction Isomerization Unit Isomalk-2 commissioned at "Gazpromneft – Omsk Refinery" JSC on 29th of October, 2010, allowed to transfer whole work technique of the enterprise to a new level.
All rotating equipment of the unit: pumps, electric motors, air-cooling units (ACU) are under the permanent control of the computer monitoring system for accidents prevention and condition control - COMPACS®.
The system helps the personnel, managing "Izomalk-2" unit technological process, to obtain the current information on diagnosed equipment condition.
COMPACS® system operation on "Izomalk-2" unit rotating equipment in "Gazpromneft – Omsk Refinery", JSC allowed to implement the unit commissioning saving technologies and begin to carry out the diagnostics of equipment operation based on the actual condition.
The productions equipment with condition monitoring systems and the transition to condition-monitored equipment operation – that is a real way to ensure reliable, safe and stable operation of hazardous production, that , in turn, leads to an increase of production profitability. It is the way Omsk refinery plant operates already more than 20 years.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Tarasov E.V. COMPACS is on guard over new technology // Oil & Gas of Siberia, № 1(2). - 2011. - pp. 24-25