Machinery failures make up the major part of failures of units of oil-refining and petrochemical complexes. Machinery failures often cause accidents and manufacturing defects.
In order to mend matters it is necessary to ensure observability and evaluation of technical condition of the units during the manufacturing process, during acceptance at consuming plants, during repair at repair departments of refineries, during the mounting of assemblies at the unit, and during operation at process units.
Increase of petrochemical complex (PCC) reliability without replacement of equipment and reconstruction is realized by implementation of monitoring tools at all stages of life cycle of PCC units, i.e. by different systems for vibration analysis and vibration monitoring - stationary, personal and stand (on input diagnostics of the bearings, diagnostics and balancing of pump spindles, etc.), their integration into a single diagnostic network ACS SRSM™ (Automated Control Systems of Safe Resource-saving operation and Maintenance of equipment), which enables automatic preparation and circulation of diagnostic information between the systems and submission of the information at all levels from operator and mechanic to the shop heads.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V. Russian experience of automatic diagnostics and monitoring of pump-and-compressor equipment on the basis of the COMPACS systems // Safe operation of compressor and pumping equipment. - Odessa, 2001. - p. 154-170
Complexity of reciprocator vibration analysis consists in the cyclicity of operation of moving parts. Vibration signal is almost periodic process, and the wear rate of the unit influences vibration signal level under certain values of crankshaft rotation angle.
However, it is hard to recognize the worn part corresponding to vibration signal change because clearances of different details may cause change in vibration signal value under the same values of crankshaft rotation angle.
The problem concerned can be solved by the following: firstly, 'competent' choice of the number of points for vibration sensors installation; secondly, 'fortunate' location of the sensors on the unit; and thirdly, 'reliable' algorithm for the signal processing. The only criterion for solving of these problems is field experience of the analysis of reciprocating compressor malfunctions at the moment of their repair, and comparison of malfunctions with accumulated data.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors // Consumers and manufacturers of compressors and compressor equipment: Proceedings of III International Symposium. - St. Petersburg, 1997. - p. 254-256
The necessity of accident-prevention protection of powerful compressors and other unique equipment has never raised doubts of the experts, but not the protection of pumping units. High concentration of pump units at petrochemical process units often causes accidents and other production defects.
In case we take the probability of trouble-free operation of a pump unit per day equal to 0.99, the probability of failure for machine fleet containing 100 units will be near 1. In this case the process system is almost nonserviceable.
Increase of operating reliability and maintainability of the units, technical and environmental safety, corporate culture and procedures discipline represents a powerful source of prevention of accidents and personnel traumatizing, and saving of considerable means required for the reconstruction of Russian enterprises. It is achieved by the implementation of ecologically conscious resource-saving technology of operation of oil and gas equipment on the basis of the COMPACS® complex of methodological means and firmware for computer vibration monitoring, vibration analysis and prediction of technical condition of pump-and-compressor equipment.
Malov E.A., Shatalov A.A., Bronfin I.B., Dolgopyatov V.N., Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Meling A.Y. Efficiency of implementation of the COMPACS stationary systems for vibration analysis at Omsk Refinery // Industrial safety. - M.: 1997. - № 1. - p. 9-14
Vibration-survey transducers (VST) are designed for transformation of mechanical oscillations, impulse and impact mechanical effects to a proportional electrical signal.
Among various classes of VST (electromagnetic, inductive, capacitive, etc.) piezoelectric vibration transducers have widespread application. Detecting element of concerned transducers is piezoelectric ceramics comprised in the form of plate, disk, and ring with working surfaces covered by the electrodes generally made of silver, platinum, and nickel alloys.
The article presents the requirements for VST for industrial application, their technical characteristics and terms of delivery.
Kostyukov V.N., Donskov V.I., Ivanov A.A., Zagorodniy V.S. Vibration-survey transducers for industrial application // Foreign radio electronics. - M., 1996. - № 9. - p. 65-67
The paper presents the results of long researches of the authors in the field of development and industrial implementation of the systems for vibration analysis of machines and processes on the basis of measurement of the parameters of secondary static and dynamic (mainly vibroacoustic) processes accompanying technological system operation.
We formulated a number of aufbau principles of measurement and diagnostic systems (MDS) for machines and equipment, which were proven in practice. MDS concerned laid the groundwork for wide implementation of such systems. We showed that the use of IBM-compatible computers enable to simplify the sensors and secondary equipment, improve metrological characteristics of the systems, ensure structural flexibility in coordinates "Cost - Capacity", create an unique man-machine interface (MMI), which exempts the operator from routine reading of indications of hundreds of devices and studying figures on the screen and clearly notifies of necessary targeted actions with minimum requirements to the personnel qualification.
We considered MDS software (SW) structure by example of SW of the COMPACS® system of computer vibration monitoring for accident prevention and condition control; SW concerned was compared with well-known SCADA-systems. In addition, we discussed the results of wide-ranging implementation of the COMPACS® MDS at Russian petrochemical enterprises.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Boychenko S.N. Principles of construction of measurement and diagnostic systems for machines and equipment. Actual problems of electronic instrument engineering - 1996 // Measurement in Electrical Engineering: Proceedings of the Third International Scientific and Technical Conference. - Novosibirsk, 1996. - V. 5. - P. 81-86
Long experience of Scientific Design and Technological Department (SDTD) PIEZOPRIBOR in the field of development and construction of piezoelectric vibration sensors (vibration accelerometers) was used to create a number of vibration analysis units for engineering, space-rocket hardware, nuclear power stations, and oil refining industry.
One of the last works ofDYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center (SPC) is creation of the COMPACS® system of automatic vibration analysis and computer monitoring for accident prevention and condition control of refining and petrochemical equipment.
Vibration accelerometers of types AB-ZPFR and AB-320FR developed by SDTD PIEZOPRIBOR in partnership with DYNAMICS SPC are of service in this system. Concerned vibration accelerometers have a number of unique characteristics. They are continuously upgraded according to the customer requirements and thus ensure reliable measurement of machinery vibration condition. The system operates according to the principle of conversion of physical parameters (vibration, temperature, pressure, current, etc.) of the equipment under control into an electrical signal by means of the sensors.
Kostyukov V.N., Donskov V.I., Tishina T.G. COMPACS system of computer monitoring for accident prevention and condition control // Foreign radio electronics. - M.: 1996. - № 9, p. 68-69
In industries with potentially hazardous production facilities there are considerable number of accidents related to the failure of pump-and-compressor equipment and other energy machines. As a result the atmosphere and environment are polluted by toxic and explosive products.
Considering substantial wear of equipment, the major line of ensuring its safety (along with renewal of the used fleet) is implementation of objective and comprehensive condition control based on regular monitoring of changes in the parameters characterizing the reliability of equipment operation.
In 1991 scientific and production centre Dynamics developed the COMPACS® system for automatic vibration analysis and computer monitoring, that is distributed system of measurement and control. In order to process, display, accumulate, store and register signals of the sensors installed on the equipment they are submitted to vibration diagnostic station constructed on the basis of an industrial computer installed at operator's desk.
Malov E.A., Bronfin I.B., Dolgopyatov V.N., Mikerin B.I., Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N. Implementation of the COMPACS systems – ensuring accident-free operation of industrial enterprises with uninterrupted cycle // Industrial safety. - M.: 1994. - № 8. - p. 19 - 22