The book presents information on the automated control systems for safe resource-saving operation (ACS SRSM™) of machine and other equipment at petrochemical and other enterprises with uninterrupted cycle.
The realization of ACS SRSM™ based on the COMPACS® systems of computer monitoring for accident prevention and condition control is the subject of wide contemplation. The COMPACS® systems ensure automatic diagnostics of equipment on the basis of vibration, thermal, acoustic-emission and other methods covering process units with rotating equipment, repair production, other quasi-static equipment and enterprises integrated into a diagnostic network. The information on the equipment condition and repairs is transmitted to all interested departments of the company.
The sensors, modules, diagnostic controllers and software of the systems, the problems of design, production, quality control of the systems produced, their mounting, checkout and operation in oil-and-gas and other industries have been considered.
The book is of interest for engineers and technicians engaged in designing, manufacturing, testing and maintenance of equipment, automated control systems and safe resource-saving productions of high reliability.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov A.V. Automated control systems for safe resource-saving equipment operation // M.: Mashinostroenie, 1999. - 163 p.
Operation of complicated productions including hundreds and thousands of units of machine and process equipment is only possible with the information on its technical condition being submitted to the company administration. Repair and modernization of equipment, reconstruction of sections, shops and factories require reasoned decisions based on reliable information on the causes of insufficient productivity, frequent repairs, downtimes, production malfunctions and emergency situations.
Information on the equipment condition (diagnosis) is obtained through the means of technical diagnosing, and their reliability is determined by the prescribed methods of diagnosing, measurement precision, diagnostician skills and quality of adjustment of devices to informative characteristics of the signals of diagnosed object.
The article presents some results of development and application of the systems for vibration analysis and monitoring of assembling and mounting of machines and units. Their use has prospects for engineering because it enables to increase reliability and service life of output products without significant reconstruction of manufacturing and process base and subsequent huge expenses.
Kostyukov V.N. Diagnostics of quality of assembling and mounting of equipment // Assembling in mechanical and instrument engineering. - M.: 2002. - № 7. - p. 25-32
In order to create faultless systems for vibration analysis and vibration monitoring in conditions of a priori uncertainty concerning the parameters of the signals, noise and the types of diagnosed units it is necessary to solve the problem of the signals filtration under conditions of correlated noise.
In such a case auxiliary independent random variable is usually introduced. By means of this variable the correlation between averaged values is eliminated through a random selection of these values according to 0 or 1 value of auxiliary random variable.
The paper presents the method and system of increase of reliability of the results of vibration analysis and vibration monitoring by randomized averaging of certain diagnoses with detection of randomizing characteristics by vibration parameters of diagnosed machine on the basis of extreme characteristics of spikes of vibration phase.
Kostyukov V.N. Randomized filtration in the problems of equipment vibration analysis // Control. Diagnostics. – M.: 2002. - № 7. - p. 18-19
During run-to-failure period of the units the COMPACS® systems continuously monitor their condition by the parameters of vibration, temperature and consumption current. Thus, the COMPACS® systems ensure efficient vibration analysis and notify the personnel about inappropriate modes of equipment operation, critical defects of pumping units, dynamic loads, modes of friction, and free distances in the bearings of centrifugal compressors, condition of bearings and gears, driving multipliers, crank-crosshead gear, valves and cylinder-piston group in reciprocating compressors.
The systems for automatic vibration analysis and condition monitoring of equipment are very effective. Thus, elimination of downtime of millionth reforming unit at the expense of unfounded halting of hydrogen compressor, which is the heart of the unit, in a day covers the expenses for the system implementation.
Kostyukov V.N., Starikov V.A., Tarasov E.V. Vibration analysis of centrifugal compressor condition // Compressors and pneumatics. - M.: 2002. - № 2. - p. 27-29
Fast developing malfunctions are the most dangerous for operation and production economy. In order to ensure malfunction observability it is necessary to carry out continuous diagnostics with automatic delivery of objective results to the personnel. The system for diagnostics and monitoring detects malfunctions, monitors their development and promptly notifies the personnel about the necessity of equipment repair or shutdown.
Implementation of the COMPACS® systems containing vibration analysis sensors, sensors of axial and radial displacement, rotation frequency, pressure, level, temperature, and current enables use of equipment during the whole operating life provided retention of its maintainability and production safety. Need for the systems for continuous monitoring of equipment, which ensure profitability based on resource-saving safety, is dictated by the necessity of transition to a new level of reliability, safety and effectivity by the implementation of modern high-degree technologies of petrochemical productions.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Kostyukov Al.V. Increase of production efficiency on the basis of implementation of the COMPACS automatic systems for diagnostics and condition monitoring of machines // Chemical technique. - M.: 2002. - №2. - p. 16-22
The paper presents a new tried-and-true method for controllability (the product suitability for diagnostics by specified technologies) of machines and units to diagnosing without their dismantling at all stages of their life cycle. This method enables reduction of number of vibration transducers installed on the unit, which simplifies vibration measurement and diagnostics.
All developed sensors have a number of features and advantages that ensure their application with minimal costs: differential construction and output, self-diagnostics of detecting element, high precision and low power consumption, wide range of operating frequencies.
The developed method for unit controllability showed itself to good advantage during the implementation of the systems for diagnostics and monitoring of thousands of units of petrochemical complexes. In addition, this method is a part of the strategy for minimal cost diagnostics that is developed by DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center (SPC). The novelty of its solutions is confirmed by the patents for invention.
Kostyukov V.N. Controllability of machines in the diagnostics of build quality // Assembling in mechanical and instrument engineering. - №5. - M.: 2001. - p. 41-42
The developed models and determined mechanisms of initiation and development of vibration and other processes accompanying operation of units of petrochemical complex enable their normalization in order to determine relative boundaries between different conditions of the units.
Experimentally proved fact underlying the methodology of normalization of machinery vibration parameters is that under normal operation of various units the values of vibration parameters are below certain values which can be used as the limits.
The developed methodological approaches and firmware of vibration monitoring of condition enable to liquidate fundamental causes of equipment failures (LiFCF technology), minimize the flow of requirements for maintenance, formulate and implement the strategy for minimal cost diagnostics of tens of thousands of bearings, several thousands of pumps, electric motors, couplings, reduction gears, dozens of compressors and air coolers of more than 350 types. Thus, methodological approaches and firmware concerned made a major contribution to the company profitability on the basis of resource-saving safety.
Kostyukov V.N. Normalization of vibration parameters in reciprocating compressor diagnostics // Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium "Consumers and manufacturers of compressors and compressor equipment - 2001". - St. Petersburg, 2001. - p. 90-93
DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center (SPC) proposes a COMPACS®-EXPRESS permanent station for vibration monitoring of wheel motor units (WMU) of electric multiple units and linehaul electric locomotives. The station is realized on the basis of the COMPACS® system which has a simple distributed architecture of fieldbus type and enables connection of analog and discrete signal sensors of all types - vibration transducers, thermocouples, etc.
A diagnostic controller installed at the shop, which does not require the systems for air conditioning and filtration, monitors, processes, and presents the results of diagnostics. Batch-produced system is certified by State Standard, included in State Register, and widely implemented in the country.
The station includes operator control panel and remote module with the sensors. The main task of the operator is to prepare WMU to tests and to place magnetic vibration sensors. All further actions are carried out at the operator control panel.
Avilov V.D., Kostyukov V.N., Borodulin A.G., Kovbasa N.I. Repair of locomotive units on the basis of the COMPACS resource-saving technology // Proceedings of IV Research and Practice Conference "Resource-saving Technologies in Railway Transport". - M., 2001 - p. IX-1-IX-2
COMPACS®-EXPRESS permanent station for condition monitoring of wheel motor units (WMU) of electric multiple units and linehaul electric locomotives realized on the basis of the COMPACS® system enables simultaneous diagnostics of quality of all WMU of a certain locomotive, several locomotives on a random basis or overall train according to conditions of repair shop.
The implementation of COMPACS®-EXPRESS permanent station for vibration analysis with automatic control over WMU enables to increase reliability and objectivity of evaluation of technical condition of WMU parts, and reliability of the results by automatic continuous vibration monitoring of current status of the unit on a trial basis, self-diagnostics of the sensors and overall measurement process. Thus, the quality of repair and reliability of electric stock are increasing as well.
Kostyukov V.N., Avilov V.D., Borodulin A.G., Kovbasa N.I. Repair of locomotive units on the basis of the COMPACS resource-saving technology // Resource-saving Technologies in Railway Transport: materials of the IV Research and Practice Conference. - M.: 2001 - p.IX-1-IX-2
Practical development and implementation of the technology for liquidating fundamental causes of equipment failures (LiFCF™) showed that less than 15% of the units consume more than half of all resources intended for equipment repair. More than 2/3 failures of face seals are caused by above-standard vibrations of the pumps and electric motors.
The implementation of the COMPACS® stationary systems for vibration analysis and equipment condition monitoring at process units of petrochemical complexes enabled elimination of major cause of failures – latent unobservable nature of their emergence or development. The systems enabled immediate elimination of severe accidents of pumping units associated with shafts breakage and bearings failure causing depressurization of face seals and further ignition. For instance, for 3 years of operation at JSC Tobolsk petrochemical combinat the COMPACS® systems prevented 122 failures of pumping units and accidents with ignition. It should be noted that in 1994-95, before implementation of the system, 5 such events took place.
The averaged estimation of cost efficiency of ensuring resource-saving safety by the implementation of stationary systems for continuous vibration monitoring of hazardous production facilities shows that the main sources of profitability increase are: decrease in number and duration of process unit downtimes, reduction of equipment losses, and reduction of costs of equipment repair and restoration, faster commissioning of process systems.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Boychenko S.N. Russian experience of automatic diagnostics and monitoring of pump-and-compressor equipment on the basis of the COMPACS systems // Safe operation of compressor and pumping equipment. Proceedings of Scientific and Technical Seminar. - Odessa, 2001. - p. 154-170