In the practice of vibration analysis and control the signals of vibration acceleration and vibration displacement are often not taken into account. They are considered to be interconnected with vibration velocity signal because these parameters are interrelated by differential-integral ratios. At the same time the search for orthogonal diagnostic characteristics and their use for evaluation of equipment condition is an actual problem because it significantly increases reliability of the diagnostics.
The results of fundamental investigations of vibration processes in machines and attached structures, which have been accomplished under the direction and with the participation of the authors, show that the development of various malfunctions of rotary machines causes diverse reaction of vibration acceleration, vibration velocity and vibration displacement parameters to these malfunctions. These cases indicate significant constriction of the range of diagnosing malfunctions when used only one of these parameters.
Thus, the problem of estimation of independence degree of the signals of vibration acceleration, vibration velocity and vibration displacement emerges.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V. Orthogonality of the signals of vibration acceleration, vibration velocity and vibration displacement in vibration analysis problems // Engine-2007. - 2007. - p. 500-506
On the basis of the analysis of fundamental achievements in the field of theoretical and experimental investigations, which are aimed at determination of major defects and malfunctions of the reciprocators, and on the basis of the analysis of vibroacoustic signal parameters the problem of the reciprocator condition control has been stated. In addition, major challenges in the field of the diagnostics and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors and internal combustion engines have been determined. The main sources of vibroacoustic oscillations of the reciprocators have been considered, the model of vibroacoustic signal has been proposed.
Naumenko A.P. Methodology of vibroacoustic analysis of the reciprocators // MSTU bulletin, special edition "Internal combustion engines". - 2007. - p. 85-93
The main challenges of the company services responsible for production maintenance are:
maximizing of process units run-to-failure period by eliminating of accidents and downtimes due to equipment failures;
minimizing of the stopping repair duration through targeted repairs of the equipment;
reduction of maintenance costs and losses by eliminating of inefficient unscheduled and schedule-based preventive repairs.
Thus, a key performance indicator of various technologies of equipment operation (equipment maintenance strategies) is the extent of their ability to solve each of the problems mentioned above.
The analysis of ten-year experience of operation of Automated Control Systems of Safe Resource-saving operation and Maintenance of equipment (ACS SRSM™) COMPACS® at eight largest petrochemical and oil-and-gas processing enterprises shows that COMPACS® is a reliable tool for protection from technogenic accidents, which are mainly caused by the mistakes of manufacturing personnel, and an indispensable tool for prompting of efficient decisions during the planning of the scope and terms of repairs, equipment replacement and estimation of its results.
The systems are an ideal tool for monitoring of performance discipline and workmanship of the personnel. They ensure observability of condition of manufactured, repaired and exploited equipment, controllability of its quality at all stages of life cycle, stability, safety and efficiency of production.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. Resource-saving and safe operation of equipment - the strategy of XXI century // NEFTEGAZ. - 2007. - p. 36-37
The paper presents the results of development and application of the systems for diagnostics and monitoring of the quality of assembly and mounting of machines and assemblies, which are in general use at oil-and-gas enterprises. These systems are potentially productive for engineering because they are an effective tool of increasing the reliability and service life of the products without important reconstruction of industrial and technological basis and, consequently, huge expenditures. The advances have come about through the fact that the cost of diagnosed processes and equipment is way above the cost of the monitoring systems, which is especially important for a national economy today.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Kostyukov A.V. Monitoring of the quality of assembly, mounting and operation of units of fuel and energy complexes // Technologies of Fuel and Energy Complexes. - 2007. - №2. - p. 60-65
We offer a revolutionary approach to operation management which was developed in Russia and approved at the largest oil-and-gas enterprises of Russia and abroad. This approach is realised by means of human factor elimination from the process of technical state evaluation of equipment for control of its safe maintenance on the base condition monitoring in real time. It allows establishing an actual feedback from the sources of control - equipment of production complex and operating personnel. This technology is especially actual at present stage when essential increase of production processes at different branches of oil-and-gas complexes in the vast expanses of Siberia and the Far East is planned.
The given SM™-Technology is provided by implementation of Automatised Control Systems for Safe Maintenance and Resources Saving™ COMPACS® during all stages of lifetime of the equipment: from the development stage up to utilisation. Systems ensure monitoring of the equipment state and efficiency of the maintenance and operating personnel actions and represent in real time current information to the work places of technical personnel and engineering managers responsible for an operational multiplier of the enterprise business-process.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. Increase of Oil-and-gas Enterprises Efficiency on the Basis of Safe Maintenance // World finance review. - 2007. - p. 48-49
Nowadays the problem of trouble-free, safe, observable operation of the reciprocator fleet (especially internal combustion engines and reciprocating compressors of oil-and-gas refining, chemical complexes) becomes urgent. In addition, that is a problem of the maximum resource exploitation solvable by development and implementation of the technology for diagnostics and monitoring of the reciprocator technical condition.
The result of technical diagnostics is the determination of values of structural parameters characterizing technical condition of the reciprocator, its units and parts. In order to estimate residual life in terms of the law of variation of controlled parameter during operation it is necessary to know its actual and limiting value. However, determination of actual value of many structural parameters is practically impossible in view of working reciprocator. Their determination during the reciprocator dismantling affects quality of the couplings of re-assembled reciprocator and changes the patterns of processes of interaction of parts in the couplings, which makes practical use of this method of data obtaining unacceptable. In this case, the diagnosing is carried out through indirect characteristics that are quantitatively evaluated by diagnostic characteristics. The analysis of the applicability of various methods for diesel engine (as an example) diagnosing shows that diesel engine malfunctions can be detected with the help of four basic methods: thermodynamic, parametric, spectral (‘metal in the medium’), vibroacoustic.
Considering the variety of primary transformers, secondary equipment and methods of the signal processing by all these methods we must conclude that the application of vibroacoustic method enables significant reduction of the costs of development, implementation and operation of the system for reciprocator technical diagnostics.
Naumenko A.P. The problems of reciprocator diagnostics // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 84-92
Progressive physical and moral deterioration of electric multiple-unit train fleet necessitates ensuring of the required level of safe running as well as fulfillment of a train schedule by increasing the reliability and operational readiness of rolling stock. Statistical data analysis shows that electric apparatus of electrical control circuits of traction electric drive cause up to 40% of failures, inadequate quality of maintenance and operating repairs, which are carried out at railway repair services, cause 75% of failures.
The lack of technical equipment and methods of getting of objective information on the quality of repairs determine such situation. In this regard the task of technological retooling of railway enterprises (with large-scale implementation of advanced technologies and modern means of objective control of rolling stock condition - the means of technical diagnostics) becomes urgent.
The study of physical properties and malfunctions of diagnosing object and development of its diagnostic model, which is necessary for diagnosing algorithm construction, must be a preliminary to development of the tools for technical diagnosing.
Functional-logic model reflects operating mode of equipment and order of its starting. In addition, such model determines the structure of hardware and software system, its equipment and diagnostic program. A diagnostic program in turn determines a necessary sequence of actions that is specified according to the train operating condition - a functional-test diagnostics.
The analysis of the object diagnostic models enables to formulate the efficiency condition, to determine the malfunction criteria and to select a limited set of characteristics, indexes or parameters, which should be controlled during the process of diagnosing. When choosing the methods of diagnostics it is necessary to take proper account of the possibility of their technical realization, embodiment and operating conditions of the object.
KostyukovV.N., Kazarin D.V., Kashkarov P.B. Diagnostic model of electrical control circuits of traction electric drive of electric multiple-unit train // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 80-84
The experience of rolling bearing diagnostics shows that vibroacoustic signal spectrum often contains the components not equal to the calculating defect, but close to them. At the same time the bearing dismantling indicates the presence of the defect, therefore amendment of the formulas for defect calculating is a very urgent task.
Usually at an early stage of bearing defect development the evidence of defect of only one of the rings emerges at first and only after that – of the other. Since the inner ring is farther from the point of measurement, under the same vibration level the inner ring defect will be more significant than the outer ring defect. In the spectrum frequency components typical for ring defects are often modulated by rotation frequency of rotor, which cause appearance of side bands.
The bearings are constructed to realize ‘clear’ rolling during their operation, i.e. to eliminate the slippage of balls and rollers against the rings. The slippage causes the increase of resistance, bearing rotation and decrease of its durability. ‘Clear’ rolling of unloaded bearings is observed in case the tangents to the points of contact on both sides of a ball or extensions of lines of the roller contact are crossed on the bearing axis. Emergence of the slippage between the rings and rolling element is connected with the construction features and Reynolds microslip caused by the deflection difference of contacting bodies. The analysis of rolling bearing kinematics shows that the values of defect frequencies do change. The frequency of outer holder defect calculated according to classical formulas, which do not consider rolling element slippage against the bearing rings, equals 214 Hz. The frequency will shift to 220 Hz if the slippage is considered.
The report presents a theoretical analysis of calculation of rolling bearing defect frequencies that enabled to develop a calculation model of rolling bearing defect frequencies considering rolling element slippage against the bearing rings.
Kostyukov V.N., Zaitsev A.V. Modeling of rolling bearing defects in terms of rolling element slippage // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 76-79
Wheel motor units are subjected to significant axial and radial load, alternate dynamic and shock actions, vibration loads, electromagnetic and electrostatic fields. Other negative factors include wide range of speeds of rotation (up to 700 rpm) and permanently changing environment.
In such operating conditions wheel motor units must retain their operating parameters and behavior in accordance with the Instruction №CT/330 for maintenance and repair.
As a result, the need for systematic condition monitoring of wheel motor units of electric multiple units emerged. However, occasional openings of the assemblies, rolling-out of units and machines for inspection call forth growth of complexity and cost of repair, thus increasing the downtime of electric multiple unit. Thus, it is expediently to control technical condition of wheel motor units without dismantling (by non-destructive diagnostics).
The report presents a number of requirements that are necessary and sufficient to create a diagnostic system matching modern criteria and needs of the consumer.
Kostyukov V.N., Lagaev A.A. Technical diagnostics of wheel motor units of electric multiple units // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 73-76
A balanced scorecard (BSC) is a mechanism for the company strategy realization. The goals and indexes for the system are formed by four components: financial, customer, internal business processes, staff training and development.
The purpose of BSC use in the system of safe resource-saving equipment operation management is to establish and to visualize the interrelation between the results of operating activity of technological and service personnel and financial result of refinery work on the one hand, and to determine strategic correspondence of internal process organization and intangible assets with the purpose and objectives of the management system on the other.
Development and implementation of BSC enables:
make the strategy known to all company employees;
agree the goals and objectives of the departments and each employee with the company strategy;
agree strategic objectives with long-term and short-term objectives and keep their balance;
identify and systematize strategic initiatives by their agreement with a present budget;
systematically estimate the degree of strategic result achievement and create a feedback to get the information of necessity of updating of the strategy and initiatives.
Kostyukov A.V. A balanced scorecard of efficiency of safe resource-saving equipment operation management // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 40-43