Nowadays the problem of trouble-free, safe, observable operation of the reciprocator fleet (especially internal combustion engines and reciprocating compressors of oil-and-gas refining, chemical complexes) becomes urgent. In addition, that is a problem of the maximum resource exploitation solvable by development and implementation of the technology for diagnostics and monitoring of the reciprocator technical condition.
The result of technical diagnostics is the determination of values of structural parameters characterizing technical condition of the reciprocator, its units and parts. In order to estimate residual life in terms of the law of variation of controlled parameter during operation it is necessary to know its actual and limiting value. However, determination of actual value of many structural parameters is practically impossible in view of working reciprocator. Their determination during the reciprocator dismantling affects quality of the couplings of re-assembled reciprocator and changes the patterns of processes of interaction of parts in the couplings, which makes practical use of this method of data obtaining unacceptable. In this case, the diagnosing is carried out through indirect characteristics that are quantitatively evaluated by diagnostic characteristics. The analysis of the applicability of various methods for diesel engine (as an example) diagnosing shows that diesel engine malfunctions can be detected with the help of four basic methods: thermodynamic, parametric, spectral (‘metal in the medium’), vibroacoustic.
Considering the variety of primary transformers, secondary equipment and methods of the signal processing by all these methods we must conclude that the application of vibroacoustic method enables significant reduction of the costs of development, implementation and operation of the system for reciprocator technical diagnostics.
Naumenko A.P. The problems of reciprocator diagnostics // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 84-92
Progressive physical and moral deterioration of electric multiple-unit train fleet necessitates ensuring of the required level of safe running as well as fulfillment of a train schedule by increasing the reliability and operational readiness of rolling stock. Statistical data analysis shows that electric apparatus of electrical control circuits of traction electric drive cause up to 40% of failures, inadequate quality of maintenance and operating repairs, which are carried out at railway repair services, cause 75% of failures.
The lack of technical equipment and methods of getting of objective information on the quality of repairs determine such situation. In this regard the task of technological retooling of railway enterprises (with large-scale implementation of advanced technologies and modern means of objective control of rolling stock condition - the means of technical diagnostics) becomes urgent.
The study of physical properties and malfunctions of diagnosing object and development of its diagnostic model, which is necessary for diagnosing algorithm construction, must be a preliminary to development of the tools for technical diagnosing.
Functional-logic model reflects operating mode of equipment and order of its starting. In addition, such model determines the structure of hardware and software system, its equipment and diagnostic program. A diagnostic program in turn determines a necessary sequence of actions that is specified according to the train operating condition - a functional-test diagnostics.
The analysis of the object diagnostic models enables to formulate the efficiency condition, to determine the malfunction criteria and to select a limited set of characteristics, indexes or parameters, which should be controlled during the process of diagnosing. When choosing the methods of diagnostics it is necessary to take proper account of the possibility of their technical realization, embodiment and operating conditions of the object.
KostyukovV.N., Kazarin D.V., Kashkarov P.B. Diagnostic model of electrical control circuits of traction electric drive of electric multiple-unit train // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 80-84
The experience of rolling bearing diagnostics shows that vibroacoustic signal spectrum often contains the components not equal to the calculating defect, but close to them. At the same time the bearing dismantling indicates the presence of the defect, therefore amendment of the formulas for defect calculating is a very urgent task.
Usually at an early stage of bearing defect development the evidence of defect of only one of the rings emerges at first and only after that – of the other. Since the inner ring is farther from the point of measurement, under the same vibration level the inner ring defect will be more significant than the outer ring defect. In the spectrum frequency components typical for ring defects are often modulated by rotation frequency of rotor, which cause appearance of side bands.
The bearings are constructed to realize ‘clear’ rolling during their operation, i.e. to eliminate the slippage of balls and rollers against the rings. The slippage causes the increase of resistance, bearing rotation and decrease of its durability. ‘Clear’ rolling of unloaded bearings is observed in case the tangents to the points of contact on both sides of a ball or extensions of lines of the roller contact are crossed on the bearing axis. Emergence of the slippage between the rings and rolling element is connected with the construction features and Reynolds microslip caused by the deflection difference of contacting bodies. The analysis of rolling bearing kinematics shows that the values of defect frequencies do change. The frequency of outer holder defect calculated according to classical formulas, which do not consider rolling element slippage against the bearing rings, equals 214 Hz. The frequency will shift to 220 Hz if the slippage is considered.
The report presents a theoretical analysis of calculation of rolling bearing defect frequencies that enabled to develop a calculation model of rolling bearing defect frequencies considering rolling element slippage against the bearing rings.
Kostyukov V.N., Zaitsev A.V. Modeling of rolling bearing defects in terms of rolling element slippage // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 76-79
Wheel motor units are subjected to significant axial and radial load, alternate dynamic and shock actions, vibration loads, electromagnetic and electrostatic fields. Other negative factors include wide range of speeds of rotation (up to 700 rpm) and permanently changing environment.
In such operating conditions wheel motor units must retain their operating parameters and behavior in accordance with the Instruction №CT/330 for maintenance and repair.
As a result, the need for systematic condition monitoring of wheel motor units of electric multiple units emerged. However, occasional openings of the assemblies, rolling-out of units and machines for inspection call forth growth of complexity and cost of repair, thus increasing the downtime of electric multiple unit. Thus, it is expediently to control technical condition of wheel motor units without dismantling (by non-destructive diagnostics).
The report presents a number of requirements that are necessary and sufficient to create a diagnostic system matching modern criteria and needs of the consumer.
Kostyukov V.N., Lagaev A.A. Technical diagnostics of wheel motor units of electric multiple units // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 73-76
A balanced scorecard (BSC) is a mechanism for the company strategy realization. The goals and indexes for the system are formed by four components: financial, customer, internal business processes, staff training and development.
The purpose of BSC use in the system of safe resource-saving equipment operation management is to establish and to visualize the interrelation between the results of operating activity of technological and service personnel and financial result of refinery work on the one hand, and to determine strategic correspondence of internal process organization and intangible assets with the purpose and objectives of the management system on the other.
Development and implementation of BSC enables:
make the strategy known to all company employees;
agree the goals and objectives of the departments and each employee with the company strategy;
agree strategic objectives with long-term and short-term objectives and keep their balance;
identify and systematize strategic initiatives by their agreement with a present budget;
systematically estimate the degree of strategic result achievement and create a feedback to get the information of necessity of updating of the strategy and initiatives.
Kostyukov A.V. A balanced scorecard of efficiency of safe resource-saving equipment operation management // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2007. - pp. 40-43
The paper deals with various criteria of classification of machine equipment condition monitoring systems.
The following categories of hazardous production facilities equipped with monitoring systems have been determined: equipment of the first category, which plays a key role in the process and determines industrial safety (sudden failure of such equipment may cause a technogenic accident such as explosion or fire, and/or significant reduction of technical and economic production indexes); equipment of the second category, which plays a small part in the process and influences industrial safety (sudden failure of such equipment may cause reduction of safety and technical and economic production indexes); equipment of the third category, which solves auxiliary problems.
It was offered the classification of condition monitoring systems by the following factors: number and type of used methods of nondestructive testing; type of expert system; number of the faults detected; extent of a static error of equipment condition identification; extent of a dynamic error of equipment condition identification; degree of failure omission risk; number of measuring channels of the system; method of sensor scanning; architecture; type of used signal analyzer; type of condition indicator; availability and level of a diagnostic network; management type.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V. Classification of the systems for equipment condition monitoring // Nondestructive testing and technical diagnostics in industry: Collection of scientific papers by the materials of International conference. - 2007. - pp. 43-45
The implementation of the COMPACS® stationary systems for monitoring and automated control systems of safe resource-saving operation of equipment on their basis (Automated Control Systems of Safe Resource-saving operation and Maintenance of equipment - ACS SRSM™) enabled transfer to the operation of machine equipment according to its actual condition in real-time mode, extension of run-to-failure of process units, significant increase of reliability and technical readiness of equipment in view of almost 100% use of production capacities.
The main advantage of the systems is absolute elimination of "a human factor" influence on the process of monitoring of equipment condition, quality, timeliness and purposefulness of the personnel actions of safe resource-saving operation of a process unit.
The implementation of the systems for automatic vibration analysis and monitoring of equipment condition not only produced significant economical effect but also substantially increased industrial safety owing to elimination of stress emergencies, which often caused inadequate actions of the personnel.
The attitude of the personnel (primarily the chief operator directing the process) is a key factor of safe resource-saving operation of the unit. That is why the knowledge of actual equipment condition provided by the COMPACS® systems for vibration monitoring is the best way to cost effective industrial safety.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Vostrikov I.Y. A new high-performance saving technology of operation of Syzran Refinery equipment complexes on the basis of the COMPACS system for condition monitoring // Chemical Technique - M.: 2007. - № 3. - p. 14-20
Condition monitoring ensuring profound diagnostics of the assemblies and mechanisms of reciprocating equipment and first of all compressor units with reciprocating compressors and internal combustion engines is one of the most important problems solvable through the diagnostics by vibration signal parameters.
Development of the methodology and systems for reciprocator condition monitoring is an actual problem.
The paper presents the methodology for monitoring, gives definition of the following terms: condition monitoring of the units, technical diagnosing of the unit, technical diagnosis, diagnostic feature. In addition, it presents the guidelines for monitoring system construction and specifies the main parameters characterizing and accompanying reciprocating compressor work.
For equipment condition monitoring the following parameters are used (depending on diagnostic tasks): vibration acceleration, vibration velocity, vibration displacement, temperature, pressure, radial clearance, current consumption, shaft speed, fluid (condensate) level, the signal of acoustic emission sensor, the parameters of alternating/direct current and voltage.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. System for condition monitoring of reciprocating equipment // Control. Diagnostics. – M.: 2007. - № 3(105). - p. 50-59
Analysts estimate that from 30 to 70% of the companies qualify the results of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation as partly failed (objectives have not been completely gained, terms and budgets of the projects have been exceeded, total cost of ownership of a system turned out unreasonably high, difficult maintenance etc.)
Along with above reasons we can note another two which are not often mentioned, but connected with the realities of operating enterprise:
transformation of the enterprise structure and the rules of its operation, which requires change of ERP-system configuration and consequently significant financial and time costs;
manual data input by the operator.
MES-systems (systems for process control) are intended to reduce or eliminate manual data input to ERP-systems. Such systems are intermediate between SCADA (Supervisory for Control And Data Acquisition) and ERP-systems. When solving the control problems at a certain level (department of power engineer, mechanic, technician, supply etc.) provided interaction with ERP they are able to minimize human factor influence during the data acquisition.
Automated Control Systems of Safe Resource-saving operation and Maintenance of equipment ACS SRSM™ COMPACS® are MES-systems based on automatic acquisition and practical use of diagnostic information on the equipment condition in real-time mode.
Kostyukov V.N., Malov E.A., Ryabov V.A., Shatalov A.A., Kostyukov A.V. Compass in the world of security and efficiency: Benefits of Manufacturing Execution System (MES) for safe resource-saving operation of equipment which is based on ACS SRSM COMPACS // Oil of Russia. - M.: 2006. - № 4. - p. 100-103
Ensuring safe operation of potentially hazardous production facilities is inseparably linked with condition monitoring of equipment, rotating in particular (pump-and-compressor, energy, etc.). Nondestructive testing (NDT) method of vibration analysis is one of the effective and developing methods of condition monitoring of such equipment.
Since 1995 DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center (SPC) specialists have trained the students of Omsk State Technical University (speciality "Devices, methods of quality control and diagnostics") to vibration analysis method of testing, and since 1999 they train the specialists of vibration analysis method jointly with the Institute of Radio Electronics, Service and Diagnostics.
Experienced specialists and teachers, the signal bases with actual defects, the possibility to control knowledge electronically in a terminal class by the tickets, laboratory facilities based on portable and stand diagnostic systems, and significant methodological groundwork – these facts characterize DYNAMICS SPC as the leading organization in the field of vibration analysis training that has already trained the specialists of more than 25 enterprises of chemical, petrochemical, oil and gas, mining, metallurgical and other industries.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Training of the specialists of nondestructive testing // The Fifth International Conference "NDT and Technical Diagnostics". - 2006. - pp. 53-54