The analysis of essence of condition monitoring of the equipment is presented. The structures of monitoring systems for equipment with various ware rates are considered. The advantages of net structures created on the base of Web-technologies for equipment control optimization within the whole enterprise are shown. The description of complex systems intended for the monitoring of complexes of machine, column-vessel and electromechanical equipment on the base of complex use of non-destructive testing methods are presented. The results of new class automated control systems implementation - safe resource-saving maintenance of equipment in large industrial complexes are given.
Kostyukov V.N. On-line overall condition monitoring systems // The world of non-destructive testing. - 2008. - №12. - p. 42-50
Significant wear of process equipment, low reliability of its work, unscheduled and emergency facility stop, high-cost and inefficient principles of organization of preventive maintenance due to schedule-based preventive maintenance and repairs, a subjective production quality control and equipment repair, lack of condition monitoring of equipment during operation, the negative impact of staff on the status of equipment during process control - these are main problems that can not be solved by using the traditional approach to planning and organization of maintenance and repair.
For effective company`s capitals asset management a new and unique solution is offered - Compacs Asset Management™, based on objective, focused and timely data of the equipment condition provided by COMPACS® monitoring systems, combined into a single diagnostic network Compacs-Net®, integrated an automated safe resource-saving operation of equipment COMPACS® ACS SRSM™.
Implementation of economic mechanism of equipment operation, based on COMPACS® ACS SRSM™, leads to reliability growth of technological complexes and provides the transition from SPM system to the equipment operation on a technical condition in real time, which greatly improves economical efficiency of enterprises by increasing run-to-failure periods of equipment operation, use of technological complexes up to 99% per year, cost reduction of repairs up to 4-6 times, growth of labor discipline and objective evaluation of contribution of each specialist to the enterprise operation.
Kostyukov A.V. Management of safe resource-saving operation of equipment of refineries and petrochemical plants based on COMPACS // Omsk University Herald. - 2008. - p. 50-53
Comprehensive condition monitoring systems COMPACS® are designed to provide safe resource-saving operation of equipment of hazardous production facilities by obtaining a real-time information about the past, current and projected state of equipment of hazardous production facilities, which are used in decision support system.
Necessary decisions refer to the following types of operation performed:
Monitoring and evaluation of equipment state during acceptance tests and operation of different types (methods) of non-destructive testing (vibroacoustic, acoustic emission, thermal, etc.);
Diagnostics of defective equipment units and causes of defects and malfunctions;
Implementation of operation schedule of monitoring objects, taking into account its state;
Monitoring of process variables to minimize the destructive loads acting on the objects of monitoring, to ensure maximum resource of safe resource-saving operation of equipment of hazardous production facilities;
Change of scheduled maintenance frequency (for equipment in operation);
Operation of the equipment of hazardous production facilities in the actual condition, which implies that the volume and content of scheduled inspections and surveys of facilities, equipped with monitoring systems, can be changed;
The conditions of the further operation of the equipment of hazardous production facilities above service limit.
COMPACS® system provides reliable diagnostics of bearing defects, breakdown of lubrication, cavitation conditions of pumps operation, dog-leg shafts and rotating elements imbalance, pumps and motors unfastening, mechanical seals failures, more than 70% of which is due to unacceptably high levels of pumps and motors vibration COMPACS® stationary system eliminated breakdown and so-called "sudden" failures.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Naumenko A.P., Tarasov E.V., Kostyukov Al.V. Comprehensive condition monitoring of hazardous production facilities of petrochemical complex // Chemical engineering. - 2008. - №9. - p. 30-35
Recently, one of the most effective methods of condition monitoring is acoustic emission monitoring. Its potential with minimum tool and staff costs can not only detect and record emerging defects, but also classify them according to hazard level. The ability of acoustic emission method to register the slightest structural failure of the material can monitor not only test subjects state but also objects in operation without changing their operation schedule.
The experience of acoustic emission monitoring of various objects using the multichannel acoustic-emission systems, as well as experience of developing information-measuring systems allowed to develop and successfully implement the system COMPACS® for acoustic emission monitoring.
The system provides reliable recording of signals in a high level of industrial noise, allows integrally evaluate state of objects, provides to localize sources of acoustic emission - areas of origin and/or growth of defects. Built-in calibration system provides functional test of ducting system, sensors truth and localization system setting.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Naumenko A.P., Schelkanov A.V., Petrov V.V. The system of acoustic emission monitoring of hazardous production facilities // Acoustic emission. Breakthrough in theory and practice. - 2008. - p. 36-44
The theory of economic analysis states that any increase in constant costs leads to growth of break-even cost, so it is necessary to make and encash additional products to cover them. The increase of variable costs produces the same effects, but even their slight rise leads to much greater operation lowering of the refinery due to the effect of operating leverage, as the loss of raw materials, energy, and the finished commodity directly affect the value of variable costs and marginal revenue. Such factors as intensity of use, energy consumption and labor intensity influence the loss of resources. Such figures are determined by production methods and can`t be changed without changing of them.
Therefore, the main reason of raw materials, energy, and finished commodity losses during production is equipment failures caused by operation schedule failures, or intolerable state of production facilities. This leads to a suspension of production, faulty production, and in some cases, the destruction of material resources, including raw materials, finished commodity and fixed assets. Size of situational costs depends on the amount of material and labor costs to the equipment repair and the amount of losses from accidents and downtime.
Thus, the main vector of the cost-effective use of resources in the enterprise is prevention of growth and decrease of situational costs that appear during the production, which allows save material, labor and financial resources of the refinery, as well as cut losses of other types of resources - human, environmental, etc. Moreover, the decrease of situational costs allows increase the duration of the production and reduces schedule shutdowns.
Kostyukov A.V. Estimating the efficiency of repairs to oil refineries // Controlling management technologies. - 2008. - №2 (26). - p. 38-45
Monitoring motor driven rolling stock is monitoring of electric assemblies to determine and predict the moment of their transition to the limit state. This is accomplished by periodically diagnostics of adjacent time intervals which are significantly shorter than the failure interval to a critical value.
Automatic monitoring - is an automatic comprehensive diagnostics of technical condition with the required completeness (covering at least 80% of the main faults), spread in time and available to the staff at all levels to make reasoned decisions. This approach allows us to control the state of MDRS by timely maintenance and repair, i.e. maintain and repair only those units which need to be repaired in the upcoming period of operation.
Automatic diagnostics is possible only together with automated expert system fault location, which eliminates the human error of diagnostician and reduces the labor intensity and period of diagnostics.
Linking all diagnostic systems at the depot and on-board devices of sections into a single monitoring system provides timely information about the technical condition of operated and repaired units and train in general, to the responsible staff of depot (plant). At the same time the following problem are solved: significantly decrease of human factor and minimization of errors to a level limited by accepted diagnostic methodology, decrease of labor intensity and duration of diagnostics, providing a small interval of diagnostics and minimization the dynamic errors.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P. On-line monitoring of motor driven rolling stock // Rail transport. - 2008. - №6. - p. 41-42
Determination of the necessary and sufficient number of diagnostic features that allow accurately assess the technical condition of the piston machine as a whole, its systems, facilities and individual parts, based on the analysis of physical processes in piston engine, and regularities of their development.
The applicability of different methods of diagnosis, for example, diesel engines, shows that the definition of diesel faults is possible using the four basic methods: thermodynamic, parametric, spectral ("metal in the environment"), vibroacoustic.
Given the diversity and heterogeneity of primary converters, secondary equipment and methods of signal processing all of these methods can be concluded that the use of vibroacoustic method can significantly reduce development cost, implementation and operation of technical diagnostics of reciprocating machinery.
Many years of research experience vibroacoustic signal of reciprocating compressors, diagnostic and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors confirms that the vibroacoustic signals with a sufficient degree of reliability and relevance not only to characterize the structural parameters of the units and parts of piston compressors, but also adequately reflect the increased dynamic loads on the sites, details of deviations due to physical and chemical properties of the gas required for the normal trouble-free operation of piston compressors.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Problems and solutions for safe operation of reciprocating compressors // Сompressor equipment and pneumatics. - 2008. - №3. - p. 21-28
In the second half of the 90s a variety of diagnostic units, not being linked to a single technological network and having some significant disadvantages, appeared on the railway system:
Subjectivity, i.e. complete dependence of the diagnostic results from the diagnostician.
High labor intensity and long-drawn diagnosis, due to the low degree of automation of the diagnostic process, which does not provide comprehensive diagnosis.
Low reliability of the results due to above mentioned reasons, generating position error as well as dynamic error connected with comparability of the diagnostic period with an interval of errors till critical value.
Unavailability of objective information about technical state of motor driven rolling stock and its units in real time, i.e. pure observability of true condition of motor driven rolling stock.
The implementation of system COMPACS® will realize condition-monitored maintenance of motor driven rolling stock with automatic term planning and volume of works for maintenance and repair only those components and assemblies of MDRS which really need to be repaired. In this case the volume of schedule-based repairs TR-1 TR-2 TR-3 reduced. Real-time condition monitoring increases greatly serviceability ratio of rolling stock. If now it is 0.92, after the implementation of radically new technology of equipment operation, based on knowledge of the technical state of the equipment at any time, it will raise up to 0,96-0,98. This means the reduction of operating expenses of repair downtime in 3-4 times (60-80%) and operation of 15-20 trains of ten cars each without the purchase of new rolling stock.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P. Safe resource-saving operation of motor driven rolling stock (MDRS) based on real-time condition monitoring // Science and Transportation. - 2008. - p. 8-13
The process of development of errors visible requires continuous monitoring, ie diagnostics with a period much shorter than the interval of their development and with the automatic delivery of the objective results. The main task of equipment monitoring system - defect detection, monitoring of their development and timely warning for maintenance.
COMPACS® system is invariant to vehicle structure and implements various methods of non-destructive testing (vibroacoustic, acoustic emission, electrical, ultra-audible, thermal and parametric). The system refer to expert decision support systems, i.e. it must help the staff to take reasoned decisions on the management of operation and equipment condition. The system receives signals from sensors and generates vector of orthogonal diagnostic features, including a dozen types of non-destructive testing. Vector of diagnostic features enters the processing unit of logical predicates, the results of which formed the expert system results. As a result, automatic expert system generates diagnostic requirements on the main as text messages, as well as voice alerts.
Thus, the system provides continuous monitoring of the industrial complex due to aggregation of various methods of non-destructive testing based on a single hardware and software platform which allows to diagnose the condition of the mechanical (mill, blocks, pumps, compressors, blowers, motors, etc.), technology (presses, furnaces, pipelines, storage tanks) and other equipment.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Sinitsyn A.A., Volkov A.M., Kuznetsov O.V. Condition monitoring system COMPACS for wheel-rolling mill // Steel. - 2008. - №4. - p. 58-63
The report presents a classification of faults in electrical circuits of trains at their place of origin and distribution of faults on the elements of electrical circuits. The most informative parameters which are useful to measure and record during electrical circuits diagnostics are presented in the report; as well as requirements to the diagnostic system to maintain the relationship and measure the most informative parameters.
Diagnostic system of electrical circuit of motor driven rolling stock can detect the following defects in electrical circuits:
break of train and section control wire;
sticking and malfunction of contacts and power contactors;
nominal deviation of electrical parameters of apparatus, coils and resistors;
break and turn-to-turn short circuit in the elements;
wire fault to frame, as well as wiring errors;
deviation of the time parameters of apparatus due to incorrect regulation, excessive wear or drive scoring;
sequence fault of apparatus operations, etc.
The developed diagnostic system of electrical circuit of train electric units, implemented in a number of motor train depot of the country, provides an objective monitoring of the technical state of apparatus and components of electrical circuits, while reducing labor intensity and span time on troubleshooting and repair.
Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V. Diagnostic system of electrical circuit of motor driven rolling stock // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2009. - pp. 151-157