There is quite a large scope of the piston machines (PM), where the safety of their operation is paramount and decisive factor. These are PM of petrochemical complex (PCC) potentially hazardous facilities.
Sudden and emergency PCC equipment breakdown threatens not only the appearance of significant economic losses due to downtimes and working capacity restoration, but also environmental and man-made accidents and disasters. In this regard, it is very important to obtain not only reliable, but early diagnosis as well, which can provide trouble-free operation with maximum resource use of the replaceable units and parts.
This can be achieved only by providing a diagnosis-making at a time-interval, shorter than the malfunction development. For the PCC equipment this period can lie in the range from several minutes to hours, days, weeks, months.
The monitoring system of technical equipment COMPACS® allows to control purposefully and reliably the reciprocating compressors condition.
The article deals with methodological principles of operation and repair of reciprocating machines, compressors, in particular the hazardous continuous facilities compressors, according to the actual technical condition using the real-time technical condition monitoring systems. Examples of maintenance and repair on the monitoring system COMPACS® indications.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Solutions to the problems of piston machines safe operation // Assembling in mechanical engineering, instrument making. - 2009. - №3. - p. 27-36
In the course of long-term theoretical and experimental researches the condition monitoring system for the refinery machine and column-storage equipment, which implements the concept of the real-time equipment operation on its technical condition, has been developed. High-precise diagnostics, built-in expert system for recognition of the defects main classes ensured the effective monitoring and the equipment technical condition forecast with an automatic issuance of regulations on equipment maintenance and their execution control. Refineries equipping with such monitoring systems increases safety and operational efficiency, as convincingly shown by the results of its maintenance: a significant reduction of sudden failures, a fourfold decrease of repairs, and the total savings from the implementation of the monitoring system are more than $6 million per year along with 1,5 months payback period.
The article shows a cause-and-effect relation between the situational costs increase, depending on the observability of the equipment condition, and the personnel actions. The analysis of the typical refinery equipment condition and its repair is shown. The concept of the equipment condition monitoring is revealed. The application of the comprehensive monitoring system COMPACS® is described to ensure the safe equipment operation on hazardous industrial facilities by real-time receiving the operational information about past, current and projected technical condition of equipment. The SM™-technology use in refineries production management has been presented.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. Improving the refineries operational efficiency based on equipment condition monitoring // Oil & gas Journal. - 2009. - p. 57-64
Search and application for an estimation of a technical condition of machines of orthogonal diagnostic attributes represents rather actual problem as essentially increases reliability of diagnostics. Experience shows, that development of various malfunctions of rotor machines leads to that parameters vibroacceleration, vibrovelocity and vibrodisplacement react to these malfunctions on a miscellaneous. In a practice of vibration analysis and vibrocontrol the signals of vibroacceleration and vibrodisplacement often do not use, including their closely connected with a signal vibrovelocity, that these parameters are connected among themselves by differential-integrated ratio. These cases specify significant narrowing of a range of diagnosed malfunctions at use only one of these parameters.
By analytical researches, by numerical computer modelling and by means of natural experiments it is shown, that at diagnosing such malfunctions as defects of rolling and slidings bearings and, impellers of pumps, tooth gearings, infringement of centering of machines and fastening of units of machines to the bases, among themselves and to other attached designs, vibroacceleration, vibrovelocity and vibrodisplacement it is possible to consider parameters practically orthogonal. Thus, sharing for diagnostics of all three, parameters allows to observe in a spectrum of fluctuation of all frequencies raised in the mechanism.
Kostyukov A.V. Orthogonality of vibroacceleration, vibrovelocity and vibrodisplacement signals in vibration analysis tasks // Proceedingds of the 5th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies. - 2008. - p. 794-80
Operation of the complex manufactures containing hundreds and thousand of units machine and the process equipment, is impossible without representation of the information on its technical condition to administration. Repair and modernization of the equipment, reconstruction of sites, shops and manufactures demand acceptance of the proved decisions which should base on a trustworthy information about the reasons of insufficient productivity, frequent repairs, idle times, industrial malfunctions and emergencies.
Reliability of the information is essentially determined by its objectivity, that is independence, of will, desires and reasons of the concrete people who are responsible for operation, repair, modernization of the equipment and reconstruction of manufacture. Only on the basis of the appropriate quality information, (authentic, received in due time and in necessary amount) it is possible to make the correct decisions determining success and profitableness of the enterprises.
KostyukovV.N. Condition monitoring of the equipment in real-time-technology of safe-save maintenance of the XXI century // Proceedingds of the 5th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologiess. - 2008. - p. 785-793
The offered classification of monitoring systems meets requirements of modern manufactures and is based on long-term experience of creation and introduction of systems of monitoring of a technical condition machine and the process equipment in real time of dangerous manufactures chemical, petrochemical, oil-extracting, refinery, mountain and an iron and steel industry, a railway transportation, a municipal services.
Boychenko S.N. Classification of the state monitoring systems // Proceedingds of the 5th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologiess. - 2008. - p. 178-184
The analysis of essence of condition monitoring of the equipment is presented. The structures of monitoring systems for equipment with various ware rates are considered. The advantages of net structures created on the base of Web-technologies for equipment control optimization within the whole enterprise are shown. The description of complex systems intended for the monitoring of complexes of machine, column-vessel and electromechanical equipment on the base of complex use of non-destructive testing methods are presented. The results of new class automated control systems implementation - safe resource-saving maintenance of equipment in large industrial complexes are given.
Kostyukov V.N. On-line overall condition monitoring systems // The world of non-destructive testing. - 2008. - №12. - p. 42-50
Significant wear of process equipment, low reliability of its work, unscheduled and emergency facility stop, high-cost and inefficient principles of organization of preventive maintenance due to schedule-based preventive maintenance and repairs, a subjective production quality control and equipment repair, lack of condition monitoring of equipment during operation, the negative impact of staff on the status of equipment during process control - these are main problems that can not be solved by using the traditional approach to planning and organization of maintenance and repair.
For effective company`s capitals asset management a new and unique solution is offered - Compacs Asset Management™, based on objective, focused and timely data of the equipment condition provided by COMPACS® monitoring systems, combined into a single diagnostic network Compacs-Net®, integrated an automated safe resource-saving operation of equipment COMPACS® ACS SRSM™.
Implementation of economic mechanism of equipment operation, based on COMPACS® ACS SRSM™, leads to reliability growth of technological complexes and provides the transition from SPM system to the equipment operation on a technical condition in real time, which greatly improves economical efficiency of enterprises by increasing run-to-failure periods of equipment operation, use of technological complexes up to 99% per year, cost reduction of repairs up to 4-6 times, growth of labor discipline and objective evaluation of contribution of each specialist to the enterprise operation.
Kostyukov A.V. Management of safe resource-saving operation of equipment of refineries and petrochemical plants based on COMPACS // Omsk University Herald. - 2008. - p. 50-53
Comprehensive condition monitoring systems COMPACS® are designed to provide safe resource-saving operation of equipment of hazardous production facilities by obtaining a real-time information about the past, current and projected state of equipment of hazardous production facilities, which are used in decision support system.
Necessary decisions refer to the following types of operation performed:
Monitoring and evaluation of equipment state during acceptance tests and operation of different types (methods) of non-destructive testing (vibroacoustic, acoustic emission, thermal, etc.);
Diagnostics of defective equipment units and causes of defects and malfunctions;
Implementation of operation schedule of monitoring objects, taking into account its state;
Monitoring of process variables to minimize the destructive loads acting on the objects of monitoring, to ensure maximum resource of safe resource-saving operation of equipment of hazardous production facilities;
Change of scheduled maintenance frequency (for equipment in operation);
Operation of the equipment of hazardous production facilities in the actual condition, which implies that the volume and content of scheduled inspections and surveys of facilities, equipped with monitoring systems, can be changed;
The conditions of the further operation of the equipment of hazardous production facilities above service limit.
COMPACS® system provides reliable diagnostics of bearing defects, breakdown of lubrication, cavitation conditions of pumps operation, dog-leg shafts and rotating elements imbalance, pumps and motors unfastening, mechanical seals failures, more than 70% of which is due to unacceptably high levels of pumps and motors vibration COMPACS® stationary system eliminated breakdown and so-called "sudden" failures.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Naumenko A.P., Tarasov E.V., Kostyukov Al.V. Comprehensive condition monitoring of hazardous production facilities of petrochemical complex // Chemical engineering. - 2008. - №9. - p. 30-35
Recently, one of the most effective methods of condition monitoring is acoustic emission monitoring. Its potential with minimum tool and staff costs can not only detect and record emerging defects, but also classify them according to hazard level. The ability of acoustic emission method to register the slightest structural failure of the material can monitor not only test subjects state but also objects in operation without changing their operation schedule.
The experience of acoustic emission monitoring of various objects using the multichannel acoustic-emission systems, as well as experience of developing information-measuring systems allowed to develop and successfully implement the system COMPACS® for acoustic emission monitoring.
The system provides reliable recording of signals in a high level of industrial noise, allows integrally evaluate state of objects, provides to localize sources of acoustic emission - areas of origin and/or growth of defects. Built-in calibration system provides functional test of ducting system, sensors truth and localization system setting.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Naumenko A.P., Schelkanov A.V., Petrov V.V. The system of acoustic emission monitoring of hazardous production facilities // Acoustic emission. Breakthrough in theory and practice. - 2008. - p. 36-44
The theory of economic analysis states that any increase in constant costs leads to growth of break-even cost, so it is necessary to make and encash additional products to cover them. The increase of variable costs produces the same effects, but even their slight rise leads to much greater operation lowering of the refinery due to the effect of operating leverage, as the loss of raw materials, energy, and the finished commodity directly affect the value of variable costs and marginal revenue. Such factors as intensity of use, energy consumption and labor intensity influence the loss of resources. Such figures are determined by production methods and can`t be changed without changing of them.
Therefore, the main reason of raw materials, energy, and finished commodity losses during production is equipment failures caused by operation schedule failures, or intolerable state of production facilities. This leads to a suspension of production, faulty production, and in some cases, the destruction of material resources, including raw materials, finished commodity and fixed assets. Size of situational costs depends on the amount of material and labor costs to the equipment repair and the amount of losses from accidents and downtime.
Thus, the main vector of the cost-effective use of resources in the enterprise is prevention of growth and decrease of situational costs that appear during the production, which allows save material, labor and financial resources of the refinery, as well as cut losses of other types of resources - human, environmental, etc. Moreover, the decrease of situational costs allows increase the duration of the production and reduces schedule shutdowns.
Kostyukov A.V. Estimating the efficiency of repairs to oil refineries // Controlling management technologies. - 2008. - №2 (26). - p. 38-45