The theory of economic analysis states that any increase in constant costs leads to growth of break-even cost, so it is necessary to make and encash additional products to cover them. The increase of variable costs produces the same effects, but even their slight rise leads to much greater operation lowering of the refinery due to the effect of operating leverage, as the loss of raw materials, energy, and the finished commodity directly affect the value of variable costs and marginal revenue. Such factors as intensity of use, energy consumption and labor intensity influence the loss of resources. Such figures are determined by production methods and can`t be changed without changing of them.
Therefore, the main reason of raw materials, energy, and finished commodity losses during production is equipment failures caused by operation schedule failures, or intolerable state of production facilities. This leads to a suspension of production, faulty production, and in some cases, the destruction of material resources, including raw materials, finished commodity and fixed assets. Size of situational costs depends on the amount of material and labor costs to the equipment repair and the amount of losses from accidents and downtime.
Thus, the main vector of the cost-effective use of resources in the enterprise is prevention of growth and decrease of situational costs that appear during the production, which allows save material, labor and financial resources of the refinery, as well as cut losses of other types of resources - human, environmental, etc. Moreover, the decrease of situational costs allows increase the duration of the production and reduces schedule shutdowns.
Kostyukov A.V. Estimating the efficiency of repairs to oil refineries // Controlling management technologies. - 2008. - №2 (26). - p. 38-45
Monitoring motor driven rolling stock is monitoring of electric assemblies to determine and predict the moment of their transition to the limit state. This is accomplished by periodically diagnostics of adjacent time intervals which are significantly shorter than the failure interval to a critical value.
Automatic monitoring - is an automatic comprehensive diagnostics of technical condition with the required completeness (covering at least 80% of the main faults), spread in time and available to the staff at all levels to make reasoned decisions. This approach allows us to control the state of MDRS by timely maintenance and repair, i.e. maintain and repair only those units which need to be repaired in the upcoming period of operation.
Automatic diagnostics is possible only together with automated expert system fault location, which eliminates the human error of diagnostician and reduces the labor intensity and period of diagnostics.
Linking all diagnostic systems at the depot and on-board devices of sections into a single monitoring system provides timely information about the technical condition of operated and repaired units and train in general, to the responsible staff of depot (plant). At the same time the following problem are solved: significantly decrease of human factor and minimization of errors to a level limited by accepted diagnostic methodology, decrease of labor intensity and duration of diagnostics, providing a small interval of diagnostics and minimization the dynamic errors.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P. On-line monitoring of motor driven rolling stock // Rail transport. - 2008. - №6. - p. 41-42
Determination of the necessary and sufficient number of diagnostic features that allow accurately assess the technical condition of the piston machine as a whole, its systems, facilities and individual parts, based on the analysis of physical processes in piston engine, and regularities of their development.
The applicability of different methods of diagnosis, for example, diesel engines, shows that the definition of diesel faults is possible using the four basic methods: thermodynamic, parametric, spectral ("metal in the environment"), vibroacoustic.
Given the diversity and heterogeneity of primary converters, secondary equipment and methods of signal processing all of these methods can be concluded that the use of vibroacoustic method can significantly reduce development cost, implementation and operation of technical diagnostics of reciprocating machinery.
Many years of research experience vibroacoustic signal of reciprocating compressors, diagnostic and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors confirms that the vibroacoustic signals with a sufficient degree of reliability and relevance not only to characterize the structural parameters of the units and parts of piston compressors, but also adequately reflect the increased dynamic loads on the sites, details of deviations due to physical and chemical properties of the gas required for the normal trouble-free operation of piston compressors.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Problems and solutions for safe operation of reciprocating compressors // Сompressor equipment and pneumatics. - 2008. - №3. - p. 21-28
In the second half of the 90s a variety of diagnostic units, not being linked to a single technological network and having some significant disadvantages, appeared on the railway system:
Subjectivity, i.e. complete dependence of the diagnostic results from the diagnostician.
High labor intensity and long-drawn diagnosis, due to the low degree of automation of the diagnostic process, which does not provide comprehensive diagnosis.
Low reliability of the results due to above mentioned reasons, generating position error as well as dynamic error connected with comparability of the diagnostic period with an interval of errors till critical value.
Unavailability of objective information about technical state of motor driven rolling stock and its units in real time, i.e. pure observability of true condition of motor driven rolling stock.
The implementation of system COMPACS® will realize condition-monitored maintenance of motor driven rolling stock with automatic term planning and volume of works for maintenance and repair only those components and assemblies of MDRS which really need to be repaired. In this case the volume of schedule-based repairs TR-1 TR-2 TR-3 reduced. Real-time condition monitoring increases greatly serviceability ratio of rolling stock. If now it is 0.92, after the implementation of radically new technology of equipment operation, based on knowledge of the technical state of the equipment at any time, it will raise up to 0,96-0,98. This means the reduction of operating expenses of repair downtime in 3-4 times (60-80%) and operation of 15-20 trains of ten cars each without the purchase of new rolling stock.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P. Safe resource-saving operation of motor driven rolling stock (MDRS) based on real-time condition monitoring // Science and Transportation. - 2008. - p. 8-13
The process of development of errors visible requires continuous monitoring, ie diagnostics with a period much shorter than the interval of their development and with the automatic delivery of the objective results. The main task of equipment monitoring system - defect detection, monitoring of their development and timely warning for maintenance.
COMPACS® system is invariant to vehicle structure and implements various methods of non-destructive testing (vibroacoustic, acoustic emission, electrical, ultra-audible, thermal and parametric). The system refer to expert decision support systems, i.e. it must help the staff to take reasoned decisions on the management of operation and equipment condition. The system receives signals from sensors and generates vector of orthogonal diagnostic features, including a dozen types of non-destructive testing. Vector of diagnostic features enters the processing unit of logical predicates, the results of which formed the expert system results. As a result, automatic expert system generates diagnostic requirements on the main as text messages, as well as voice alerts.
Thus, the system provides continuous monitoring of the industrial complex due to aggregation of various methods of non-destructive testing based on a single hardware and software platform which allows to diagnose the condition of the mechanical (mill, blocks, pumps, compressors, blowers, motors, etc.), technology (presses, furnaces, pipelines, storage tanks) and other equipment.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Sinitsyn A.A., Volkov A.M., Kuznetsov O.V. Condition monitoring system COMPACS for wheel-rolling mill // Steel. - 2008. - №4. - p. 58-63
The report presents a classification of faults in electrical circuits of trains at their place of origin and distribution of faults on the elements of electrical circuits. The most informative parameters which are useful to measure and record during electrical circuits diagnostics are presented in the report; as well as requirements to the diagnostic system to maintain the relationship and measure the most informative parameters.
Diagnostic system of electrical circuit of motor driven rolling stock can detect the following defects in electrical circuits:
break of train and section control wire;
sticking and malfunction of contacts and power contactors;
nominal deviation of electrical parameters of apparatus, coils and resistors;
break and turn-to-turn short circuit in the elements;
wire fault to frame, as well as wiring errors;
deviation of the time parameters of apparatus due to incorrect regulation, excessive wear or drive scoring;
sequence fault of apparatus operations, etc.
The developed diagnostic system of electrical circuit of train electric units, implemented in a number of motor train depot of the country, provides an objective monitoring of the technical state of apparatus and components of electrical circuits, while reducing labor intensity and span time on troubleshooting and repair.
Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V. Diagnostic system of electrical circuit of motor driven rolling stock // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2009. - pp. 151-157
Concerning the report we can make the following conclusions:
The use of parameters of oscillatory processes of vehicles and machinery produced by the piezoelectric transducers allows to highlight the section of technical diagnostics, studying and establishing the signs of defects and malfunctions of technical objects, as well as methods and means of detection and search (specify location) of defects and faults on the basis of the analysis of parameters of vibroacoustic signals. This section is called vibroacoustic diagnostics.
Acceleration and displacement of vibroacoustic oscillations determine the internal stresses in structural elements of the object that is the basis for calculating the strength of structural elements, based on the comparison of force appeared in the elements under mechanical loading with the force which transfer the elements into a limit state.
Even at high correlations of "signal/noise" (40 dB) vibroacoustic signals with sinusoidal components can be considered practically independent of their derivatives and integral transforms. Independence of the main parameters of vibroacoustic signals determines their orthogonality to the tasks of vibroacoustic diagnostics.
Vibration displacement should be measured within low frequency of vibroacoustic oscillations, which largely characterizes internal stress and hardness of object clamps.
Vibration velocity should be measured within medium frequency of vibroacoustic oscillations, which characterizes the energy of the vibrational processes that cause deformations and stress of structural elements.
Vibration acceleration should be measured within high and ultrahigh frequency, which will characterize the internal stress in the elements and housing units of the object.
Submission of vibroacoustic oscillations as the result of a superposition of force interactions and their nonlinear interaction determine the use of nonlinear mechanisms of vibroacoustic signals, in particular, the use of the envelope of vibroacoustic signals.
Naumenko A.P. Concerning the choice of vibration analysis parameters // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2008. - pp. 106-115
In the process of production management in the coal mining industry two main problems are solved: process management and equipment performance management. Process management should be stable, it depends not only on the proper work of the operators, but also on the equipment condition, as instability of process management turns into a big financial losses and can lead to accidents and manmade disasters. It`s necessary to sate that the majority of units and equipment are absolutely worn out, and are above standard operation time. Therefore, safe resource-saving operation together with the observability and controllability of the equipment state is a task of the prime importance of the company's management.
Automated Control Systems of Safe Resource-saving operation and Maintenance of equipment ACS SRSM™ COMPACS®, which combined comprehensive monitoring system on processing plants and stationary systems for quality diagnostic of bought equipment and equipment after the repair in a single diagnostic network Compacs-Net®, provide management an objective information about the equipment state in real time. ACS SMSPM™ COMPACS® implement safe resource-saving SM™ - Technology of equipment management (Safe Maintenance) and represent MES system (Manufacturing Execution System) which provides the observability of condition of manufactured, repaired and maintained equipment, control of its quality at all stages of the life cycle, as well as stability, safety and efficiency of production.
Kostyukov V.N., Sinitsyn A.A. Stationary and stand systems for computer monitoring COMPACS for operation quality control and maintenance of equipment // Modern technologies of increasing the efficiency of the coal and mining enterprises. - 2008. - pp. 49-59
Practical implementation of condition monitoring systems of piston machines and piston-type compressors of petrochemical complex requires the creation of state-of-the-art firmware, as well as meets the requirements for the safe operation of the monitoring systems in explosive areas. Therefore, the development of firmware for monitoring systems of piston machines of petrochemical complex covering requirements of the minimum cost strategy of the systems, and ensuring the creation of automated control systems for the safe operation of resource across the enterprise, is problem number one at present.
The present level of development of information-measuring technique makes it possible to organize the collection and processing of data both synchronously and asynchronously on multiple channels with reference to the angle of shaft rotation in a given range of frequencies - from shares and units of hertz to several megahertz. Given that the rate of failure is limited, based on the appropriate period of measuring channels survey, the use of series-parallel distributed data structure is the most appropriate for condition monitoring of centrifugal and piston-type compressors. In recent years, automatic monitoring system of refineries and petrochemical complexes COMPACS® are widespread, meeting all the requirements, implementing the strategy of minimum cost of diagnostic and monitoring system and ensuring the creation of automated monitoring systems of safe operation of resource across the enterprise.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Software and hardware for the diagnosis and condition monitoring of piston machines // Non-destructive testing and technical diagnostics in industry. - 2008. - pp. 142-145
Process equipment of modern productions usually includes rotating and static equipment. Different types of hardware are used for diagnostics and condition monitoring today. Global trend to narrow specialization of the enterprises developing technologies, stationary and portable diagnostic tools intended for a certain type of equipment brings into existence the systems produced by different companies. Many of these systems are virtually incompatible neither by electric, nor by information parameters, so they can not be integrated into a single information space of Automatic Process Control System of the enterprise.
At the same time aufbau principles of the COMPACS® system enable easy configuring its firmware for condition monitoring of various types of rotating equipment (centrifugal cradle-mounted, double-beat and reciprocating pumps, air and gas blowers, fans, air coolers, centrifugal and reciprocating compressors) and static equipment (reactors, columns, vessels, heat-exchangers, pipelines, etc.).
The most important factor, which determines the reliability of monitoring, is presentation and storage of the monitoring results in a single information space by means of the standardization of nomenclature, format and presentation of the monitoring results.
The COMPACS® system, which ensures observability of rotating and the most important static equipment, is the example of comprehensive approach to condition monitoring of hazardous production facilities.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Tarasov E.V. Comprehensive monitoring of hazardous production facilities // Chemical technique. - 2008. - №3. - p. 24-28