Due to many years of the fundamental and applied researches, and also to wide-ranging implementation of the COMPACS® systems for automatic diagnostics and comprehensive monitoring of equipment condition to the refineries and petrochemical enterprises in Russia and the CIS, Scientific Production center "Dynamics" has developed the national standards of Russian Federation in the field of equipment condition monitoring of hazardous industries, which put into effect from the last January by the Federal Agency of technical regulation and metrology.
The above mentioned standards allow to switch from schedule-based preventive repair to the safe resource-saving operation of hazardous industrial based on the actual condition with the stationary monitoring systems in real time. A technology of equipment safe resource-saving operation is designed by DYNAMICS SPC and recommended by the State mine technical inspection and the Ministry of fuel and energy of Russian Federation in 1994, when the first guidance document came out and allowed to switch from schedule-based preventive repair to the equipment operation control according to the real-time condition monitoring by the COMPACS® systems.
Taking into account that the development rate of the malfunction is limited, based on the required period of measurement channels polling, the usage of series-parallel distributed system structure is expedient for providing piston compressors condition monitoring. Such system makes it is easier and cheaper to provide the explosion safety of the measuring circuits.
Joint rates of the vector of the centrifugal pump and compressor units vibration parameters, including not only the traditional vibration velocity and vibration displacement, but also the vibration acceleration and the growth rate of vibration parameters of the centrifugal pump and compressor units, which are still not normalized in any international standard or standards of other countries, were published for the first time in the world.
The rates were refined and expanded for the most units, operated on the refineries and petrochemical enterprises in Russia, in standards by "Russian technical expertise" association, SIU (scientific - industrial union) “RISKOM” and GOST R, which were published later.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The innovative technology of safe resource-saving operation of technological complex of refineries and petrochemical companies // Oil & Gas Journal. - 2011. - №. 8. - August. - pp.58-59
The necessary and sufficient requirements to functional, diagnostic, information, and other diagnostics and monitoring systems capabilities (SDM) are defined in GOST R 53563 and GOST R 53564 and the modern level of information-measuring equipment development provides an opportunity to collect and process the data synchronously and asynchronously through multiple channels with the reference to the shaft rotation angle in a given range of frequencies - from shares and units of Hz to several MHz.
It is advisable to use the power of computers and digital signal processors to calculate the diagnostic signs of malfunctions. However, the determining factor of the data-processing system development for piston machines monitoring management is the cost. In this case, as a rule, the main problem is to provide the system explosion safety.
Taking into account that the development rate of the malfunction is limited, based on the required period of measurement channels polling, the usage of series-parallel distributed system structure seems to be expedient for providing piston compressors condition monitoring. In such a system it is easier and cheaper to provide the explosion safety of the measuring circuits.
The most optimized from these points of view (the cost of one channel, explosion safety) is the COMPACS® automated system for safe resource-saving operation of equipment of refineries and petrochemical enterprises (SMSRTM™), realizing the SMСD™ - strategy of minimum cost diagnostics.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Development and implementation of diagnostic and monitoring systems of piston compressors // Kompressornaya technica i pnevmatica (Compressors and Pneumatics). - 2011. - № 5 (July). - pp.31-36
A task to ensure a guaranteed level of production safety getting the planned result with minimum costs is sharply set to refineries and petrochemical enterprises. The operation and the equipment repair play an important part since these kinds of costs are, in fact, situational and form more than 40% of the processing cost.
The efficiency of refineries and petrochemical enterprises is mostly due to the costs of material and labor resources for repair equipment, and the amount of losses from accidents and downtimes. The rate of the equipment wear is largely determined by the adequacy of operating and maintenance staff exposure to it. If the other enterprises expense item, for example, for electricity, are determined by the production technology, and cannot be changed significantly without a radical modernization and great investments, it is necessary to manage the operating costs and the equipment life. For this purpose it is necessary to ensure the observability of the production complex health by its monitoring, i.e. the monitoring of the operated equipment health to determine the current health and predicting the moment, when it is reaching the limiting state.
A technological equipment of the refinery and petrochemical enterprises includes the dynamic (pumps, compressors, blowers, ACU (air cooling units) etc.) and static equipment (columns, tanks, pipes, etc.) for the diagnostics and monitoring of which various technical means are often used. The world trend of subspecialists technologies of stationary and portable diagnostic instruments of the specific type of equipment leads to the appearance of a large variety of systems, produced by different companies and almost incompatible with each other, that doesn`t allow to integrate them into a single information space - ACS of the enterprise.
An example of a comprehensive approach to monitoring of refineries process unit equipment condition is the COMPACS® system, ensuring the observability of the dynamic and major static equipment of the main process units on one hardware platform with the results of monitoring transferred into an integrated diagnostic network of enterprises Compacs-Net®.
The article is devoted to the brief vibration analysis history, describes the principles of the COMPACS® system operation, gives the examples of its usage, shows the economic effect of the system application and the monitoring methodology.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The Automated Control System for Safe-Money-Saving Real-Time Maintenance of equipment (SMSRTM™) COMPACS is the basis of the transition to the increased run-to-failure of refinery process units // Council of Chief mechanics. - 2011. - pp. 57-75
The operation of the electric motors, which are in poor health, leads to the direct financial losses, connected with an unpredictable failure of the equipment and, as a result, the violation of flow, and also the considerable cost of electricity, due to the high power consumption.
The diagnostics of the rotary equipment is usually made by the vibration parameter. However, the diagnostics of the equipment by the power consumption parameter has a great potential, since that allows to increase the depth of the diagnostics of the so-called electrical defects, i.e. defects and failures, connected with the electromagnetic forces disbalance. For instance, if the resistance to shaft movement occurs, so it would be reflected in the change of the respective current signal, and in the increasing of power consumption.
The physics principle in the basis of diagnostic complex operation is that any perturbations in the operation of the electric or mechanic part of an electric motor and equipment, connected with it, lead to the changes of the magnetic flux in the gap of the electric machine and, as a result, to the consumption current modulation.
Tkachenko A.A., Naumenko A.P. Research on the dependence of the parameters of the electric motor current consumption on its health // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp. 217-219
Piston compressors are the indispensable equipment of oil-refining enterprises, the failure of which may lead to a significant decrease of production, and costly repairs, increasing the danger to life and health of workers.
One of the problems, arising from the operation of piston compressors and requiring an immediate detection, is a hydraulic impact. The hydraulic shock is a phenomenon, which is accompanied by an abrupt pressure increase in the decreasing space. The hydraulic impacts can cause the destructions of cylinder-piston group details and emergency situation occurrence.
The implementation of the automatic vibroacoustic condition monitoring and diagnostics of piston compressors COMPACS® allows to successfully prevent downtimes and accidents caused by hydraulic impacts. Diagnostics and monitoring are based on the control of the level of vibroacoustic sensor signal, axially proceeding from the cylinder cover at the moment of approach of the piston to the top dead center and the level of condensate in the separator. However, the diagnosis reliability increasing will always be an urgent task.
Sidorenko I.S., Naumenko A.P. Assessment of the possibility of using the characteristic function for hydraulic impacts diagnostics // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp. 215-217
The standard reveals the requirements of safe operation of piston compressors, methods, volumes and time of revision of their details and assemblies, criteria of penalization due to wear, defects, vibration condition, operation life end, shows the data on quality assessment of the repair conducted and technical documentation created.
The standard is made for the specialists in operation, revision, repair and technical diagnostics of piston compressors. The standard is developed in replacement for "The main specifications of piston compressors repair", 1985.
The standard has been developed by DYNAMICS SPC: V.N. Kostyukov, A.P. Naumenko; "VNIKTIneftekhimoborudovaniye", JSC.
Piston compressors of the oil processing, petrochemical and chemical companies. Operation, technical supervision, audit, rejection and repair (STO 03-001-12) // Volgograd, 2013. – 242 p. ISBN 978-5-906081-72-8
Actual situation, when the rolling stock is maintained for appropriate condition due to the schedule-based preventive repair, suggests large resources costs on carrying out the planned repairs irrespectively of the actual condition of any MDRS-section unit. At the same time, the covert nature of defect nucleation and fault development leads to MDRS sections unscheduled decommissioning and additional costs.
An above-mentioned problems solving can be reached by means of an on-board condition monitoring system, making a real-time assessment of the each unit condition and giving information about the expediency of further operation. The efficiency of such a system consists in its continuous operation, i.e. the period of diagnosis, which is much smaller than fault development period in critical (emergency) condition, which gives an opportunity to carry out a condition-monitored operation of the machinery, avoiding the resource-intensive schedule-based preventive repair system.
The failures distribution analysis by the main groups of MDRS equipment shows a relatively high percentage of auxiliary machines faults in operation, it is about 10% and 20% of the detections during the repair and maintenance. The continuous condition monitoring of the auxiliary machines allows to minimize the costs for carrying out the schedule-based repair arrangement and to maximize its resource. In this case, the repair should be conducted only on those units, which are really in need of it in the required amount.
Tsurpal A.E. Failure analysis of supporting machines of motor driven rolling stock (MDRS) for its diagnostics // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp.222-223
Statistical data about the traction motors failures, constituting more than 20% of the service failures total number, demonstrate the repair quality and motors testing at the repair enterprises. Thus, 65% of the motor failures occur for reasons of an electrical nature, such as: electrical breakdowns and turn-to-turn fault of armature winding, the main and additional poles, compensating windings. That testifies availability of factors, adversely affecting the dielectric resistance of the windings insulation. The suggestions for significant simplification of the traction electric motor testing process after repair, especially in the current repair № 3 process, are wrong.
Long-term experience in traction electric motors testing shows, that every month during the testing the 10-15 % of traction electric motors are identified with significant deviations in after-repair switching conditions at the Zheldorremmash plants.
On the assumption of the above-mentioned problems we suggest to tighten the control of testing and diagnostics of traction electric motors and fully automate the diagnostic complexes.
Melk V.V. Diagnostics of electric-driven rolling stock traction motors. Methods, types and main faults // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - p. 184
Insufficient equipping of the most repair shops (of depots) with appropriate means of monitoring and diagnostics of electrical circuits doesn’t allow the personnel in charge of the safe electric trains operation to take reasonable steps for quality and timely elimination of defects, which don`t lead to equipment failure yet. Available instrumental measurement of individual parameters in majority of depots characterizes the condition of specific elements, but doesn’t provide objective information about the health of branches or sections of electric circuits, which includes these elements. This fact caused by distinction of internal interconnection between elements, branches and areas of electrical circuits from electrical circuits operation modes in general.
Thus, during the technical diagnostics development it is required to conduct the research with a view to determine these unit operation modes, in which the interconnection between the available measurement parameters and condition parameters of this unit is the strongest.
According to the task and the main diagnostic signs, selected for condition assessment and which are variables of their condition (current, voltage, voltage drop), the experimental unit for research of the functioning modes of train electric circuits is designed for their diagnostics.
The results and conclusions, obtained by computer experiments, are the basis of the method for power determination of each element (branch) of control circuit with the total current and method for diagnostics of electric circuits at EMU-trains, which have been successfully tested and confirmed high efficiency during the diagnostics of electric train different series real sections at the pilot unit, realized on the basis of computer monitoring hardware and software of the computer monitoring system for accidents prevention and condition control COMPACS®, implemented in a number of advanced EMU-train depots of "Russian Railways", JSC network.
Kazarin D.V. The experimental unit for the examination of the EMU-train electrical circuits functioning mode // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp. 159-164
The experimental data for large samples can be represented in the form of a histogram, which is a graphic (empirical) estimate of the density probability. The number of the experimental data group intervals can be defined with the Williams formula. One can build the empirical distribution function based on the empirical density probability.
Weibull-Gnedenko distribution is used for the purpose of diagnostic characters statistical properties description, since such distribution is versatile enough and covers a wide range of the various processes probability characteristics changes cases by means of the parameters variation.
Along with the lognormal distribution this distribution satisfactorily describes details operating time based on fatigue damage, and mean time between failures of bearings. This distribution is used for an assessment of machines parts and components reliability.
Naumenko A.P. Diagnostic features statistical analysis methods // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp.188-195