Plain bearings are one of the most critical assemblies. Their faults are accompanied with local overheating, babbit hardening on the shaft, shaft neck score, shaft seizure. The repair is quite laboursome and requires large time consumptions. To avoid expensive and continuous repairs it is necessary to control the assembly’s quality both in operation and repair/maintenance.
The diagnostic of the assembly in operation by vibration-diagnostic methods can be carried out by, for instance, the stationary system COMPACS® or the portable system Compacs®-micro™.
Repair or maintenance usually contains checking of an assembly’s geometrics, such as out-of-roundness, clearances, etc. However, the geometrics of assembly parts cannot be complete criteria for quality assessment, since it is not allowing to detect hidden defects. Among the most “dangerous” details are plain bearing liners. The most common ones – are double-layered plain bearing liners, which consists of a firm solid shell and anti-friction lining.
The statistics shows, that among the liner’s defects the most often are: lamination (separation of shell and lining layers) and unevenness (air bubbles and slag shots). The danger from such defects is caused by the possibility of sudden breakdown of defected liner and consequently fast destruction of the assembly. In order to detect the defects a bench ultrasonic control system for plain half bearings COMPACS®-USD was developed.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Schelkanov A.V. Bench ultrasonic control system for plain bearing liners COMPACS-USD // Assembly in mechanical engineering, instrument making. - 2013. - №1. - pp.26-28.
For more than 20 years DYNAMICS SPC is developing and implementing the technology of safe resource-saving operation of machinery ACS COMPACS®, based on complex systems of real-time condition monitoring – COMPACS®, which includes automatic expert decision-making system.
The COMPACS® system carry out real-time condition monitoring of equipment, automatically diagnosis the object and checks whether the prescriptions are fulfilled with no interference of diagnostic specialists. Therefore, the influence of human factor is minimized to personnel’s sluggishness or lack of spare parts.
The implementation of automatic control system for safe resource-saving operation of machinery COMPACS® ensures enterprises with nature-friendly technology of economically-efficient safety which eliminates accidents, increases run-to-failure periods, provides operation and repair of technological complexes machinery based on its actual condition in real-time.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov An.V., Sinitsyn A.A. Automatic control systems for safe resource-saving operation on the basis of real-time condition monitoring // Machinery operation problems and ways of increasing the reliability of reforming, hydrotreating and hydrocracking units: discus. mater. - Moscow: "Scientific and Technical Center under the Council of Chief Mechanics", 2013. - pp.79-85.
Increased number of incidents and emergencies on railway transport make us become seriously aware of handling the problem of control and condition monitoring of equipment of all infrastructural assets at all life-cycle phases. It is widely known that the lack of objective quality control of manufacturing and repair of equipment at the stages of production and maintenance and the lack of observability of the real condition degradation processes during the operation keep us from taking reasonable, both economically and technically effective actions for maintaining a high equipment reliability level promptly.
Availability of a big number of various monitoring and control tools at the disposal of manufacturing and service enterprises is no guarantee for high quality equipment condition assessment. These tools are not universalized in general, there is no consolidated base of monitored parameters and testing results, the required metrological performance is not maintained, support service are frequently non-provide. As a result, is that only about one third of technical control means are available in the enterprises' arsenal on-stream. However, there is another problem, because to get the practical importance for monitoring and testing results there must be observable to all levels of management hierarchy at any time.
Solution of the denoted problems is achieved by the development of condition monitoring and automated control systems .
Summarizing over 20 years experience of monitoring and diagnosing of critical equipment of continuous dangerous productions of petrochemical, iron and steel, and mining industries and the experience of rail transport equipment diagnosing DYNAMICS SPC now actively develops the innovative management engineering of rolling stock equipment condition based on real-time monitoring - automated control system of safe resource-saving operation and maintenance of equipment COMPACS®.
The purpose of the COMPACS® implementation and development is increasing the railway transport safety and providning continuous operation by efficient condition control of rolling stock equipment and infrastructural assets based on uninterrupted automatic real-time condition monitoring.
Kostykov V.N. Monitoring of production. Moscow: Mashinostroyenie, 2002. - 224 p.
Kostykov V.N., Kostykov A.V. Increase of operational efficiency of enterprises based on real-time monitoring. Moscow: Mashinostroyenie, 2009. - 192 p.
Kostykov V.N., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P., Kostykov A.V. Continuous monitoring of motor driven rolling stock // Railway transport. - 2008. - №6. - p. 41-42.
Kostykov V.N., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P., Kostykov A.V., Kazarin D.V. Automated diagnostics of MDRS electric circuits // Railway transport. - 2010. - №5. - p. 56-58.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Kazarin D.V., Schelkanov A.V. Automated control system of safe resource-saving operation and maintenance of rolling stock equipment of suburban passenger trains // Railway equipment. Special issue Innotrans 2012. - Sept. - Р.101-102
The main goal of equipping hazardous production facilities with a comprehensive monitoring system is ensuring safe resource-saving operation of equipment through preliminary control actions aimed at provision of required level of a technological system’s stability and quality of functioning, as well as making necessary margin of its technogenic, ecological and economic safety. Such features of the comprehensive monitoring system make real-time Manufacturing Execution Systems - MES.
Frequency rates of receiving the information on the technical condition of hazardous production facilities is determined by its fault development speed, and in order to ensure the condition observability, the speed has to be several times smaller than the duration of a fault development up to the limit state in the object of monitoring.
When selecting monitoring objects, the equipment category is set on the basis of risk analysis matrix. Equipment’s criticality level is determined by the importance of a unit on which the equipment operates, as well as the probability of failure during the operation and the degree of technogenic danger, which involves high potential wear rate.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Makhutov N.A. Real-time monitoring of operational risks and condition of machinery – the basis of industrial safety // Federal guide. - 2012. - Vol. 26. - P. 321-326
The article dwells upon the COMPACS® system for comprehensive condition monitoring of machinery and equipment on the example of DCU 21- 10/ЗM of Omsk Refinery.
Equipping the machinery with the stationary COMPACS® system has allowed to eliminate accidents and so called "sudden failures". "Sudden" are those failures which has no observability of faults nucleation and development, their further growth into emergency situation.
Application of the COMPACS® system at the DCU in real production conditions for the first time has allowed to analyze its operation and determine procedure areas where accidents appear. The system automatically indicate the worst area, capturing not only the temperature, but its growth speed and gradients, and issues an expert system message on "unacceptable changing speed and temperature difference" in the section which appeared during coke was being cooling down.
All data on the equipment condition diagnosed by the COMPACS® system are transmitted through the diagnostic network Compacs-Net® to the workplaces of heads of all services and departments in charge of safety and operation of units: through Compacs-Net® the users get the full picture of both machinery and processing equipment’s operability. This allows not only to see the unit condition in general, but also efficiently control personnel’s actions prompted by the system, and also control accuracy of the process conduction.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The system of comprehensive condition monitoring of hazardous production facilities: ways and technologies of implementation // Problems of sustainability of countries and regions in crisis and disasters of modern civilization: materials of the XVII Intern. scientific and practical conf. - Moscow: FGBU GO ChS (FC), 2012. - pp. 167-174
The provision of safe and trouble-free operation of machinery of hazardous production facilities, which significantly influences the technical and economic indexes of production and the occurrence of technogenic incidents, is inextricably connected with the control of machinery performance in real-time.
Today on the majority of enterprises the performance management of repair service as well as its subsidiaries is carried out in two ways. On the one hand, it is carried out by the checking the expenses compliance to the nomenclature and the costs of the approved budget items; on the other hand – by the calculation of the numbers of accidents and incidents caused by skipping of machinery failures and determining the situational losses of machinery or the shutdown.
However, the leading enterprises have already passed on to the observation of the interaction of the production system elements by the introduction of the real-time monitoring system COMPACS®. All this allows to influence the factors of the result achievement, which is, in fact, the essence of the management department of any organization. Through the monitoring of machinery condition it is possible to identify not only the quality of the main and auxiliary personnel, but also the amount of work performed. In this regard, in order to save the resources and reduce the expenses of manufacturing complex it is possible to remove the operating and repair personnel from the complex and transfer them to the separate organization departments. The objective and timely information about the status of the machinery service acts as a link integrating these departments into a common production system.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Gavrin S.V., Kozlov A.A., Yatsyuk N.V. The development of the machinery diagnostic systems // World of oil products. The Oil Companies’ Bulletin – 2012. – № 8. – pp. 43-46
The solution for the problems of safe operation of machinery of hazardous production facilities is provision of the condition observability of the facilities which have the largest impact on technical-and-economic performance of production and occurrence of technical accidents. The condition observability of production facilities can be reached by monitoring of their machines in order to determine its current state and predict the moment when the state turn extreme. The result of monitoring is a complex of diagnoses of monitored facilities included in production complex obtained in inseparably linked time periods during which state doesn’t change.
The machinery degradation process observability allows to eliminate emergency repairs and to carry out planned condition-based repair of machines, which ensures 100% elimination of accidents. Resource-saving means not only reduction of material expenditures, but, also, decreasing of labour force and money expenditures for operation, elimination of consequences of accidents and faults, as well as losses due to downtime of production facilities. Such a clear increase of time-between-repairs of technological units up to 2-5 years (which all companies demand from their plants) is impossible without introduction of a monitoring system – which is a basic element of safe resource-saving operation of refineries and petrochemical companies, providing observability of machinery and the most important static equipment of the main technological units on an integral diagnostic network of the enterprise.
The selection and validation of range of facilities which are to be monitored is carried out by analysis of the production technology scheme including the influence of the facilities on the operational process and technogenic accident probability by means of a special method. As a result, the categories of facility hazard are specified. The final result of the analysis is development of a program of equipping the enterprise with monitoring systems and transferring to condition-based machinery operation. The analysis of reliability of technological units at the modern refineries and petrochemical companies shows that more than three-fourths of all faults happen to machines which high concentration at the units often causes accidents and production troubles, as well as downtime of units and plants.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Kostyukov Al.V., Kostyukov An.V., Boychenko S.N., Belyavsky O.G., Samkov S.F. The experience of introduction and operation of condition monitoring system for potentially hazardous production facilities // Chemical equipment. – 2012. – № 12. – pp. 24-28
The methodology of a diagnostic signal processing, a function chart of the monitoring system are considered in the article. The methodology of monitoring and diagnostics is based on measurement of indirect processes' parameters (vibroacoustic oscillations) therefore, no more than five sensors is established on the cylinder, measurement of direct structural and thermodynamic parameters is described as well.
The structure and principle of expert system's functioning of decision-making is given. Algorithm of automatic expert system includes the calculation diagnostic attributes values based on their normative values, formation sets of diagnostic attributes that correspond to individual classes to malfunction, issuing of expert system messages.
The scheme of a real-time condition monitoring system for piston compressors is presented in the article. The system has consistently-parallel structure of information-measuring equipment, which allows to measure the vibroacoustic signal for condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors and their operation modes. Besides, the system allows to measure parameters of other physical processes, for example, pressure in decreasing spaces (the indicator diagram) for monitoring and diagnostics, the inlet pressure and flowing pressure of each cylinder, inlet and delivery temperature of gas, valves temperature, position of a rod, leakage through compression packing and others.
Naumenko A.P., Kostyukov V.N. The Piston Compressor: The Methodology of the Real-Time Condition Monitoring // The 25th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management (COMADEM-2012)
As shown by the experience, substantial reliability improvement of refineries and petrochemical facilities without equipment replacement and reconstruction may be provided by introduction of the monitoring tools at the all stages of units’ lifecycle. The condition monitoring allows transferring most of the failures from “sudden” to “creeping failure” category due to early detection of errors and warning personnel about progressive damage which already exists but may not be dangerous yet, since it does not violate the Refinery units’ operability.
Relevant regulatory frameworks in the form of international standards are ascertained only common approaches in monitoring problem solving (ISO 13374) both by the vibration measuring (ISO 13373, 10816) and by the measuring of parameters of various processes (ISO 13379, 13380).
Sharing various methods of technical diagnostics and nondestructive testing for technical state assessment, on one hand, is a really difficult and urgent problem due to the need of selection of the complex diagnostic features. On the other hand, various facilities require selection of the specific diagnostics methods and features.
The solution of the problem can be found in basic researches carried out over the last 40 years, as well as relevant testing of the suggested solutions, and operation of the computer monitoring systems for accident prevention and condition control (COMPACS®) in real conditions of the productions.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Boychenko S.N. Russian standards for technical state monitoring of hazardous production facilities // NDT days 2012, pp. 300-304
Since the beginning of the second half of the last century pioneer researches on vibration-acoustic (acoustic in that time) diagnostics (VAD) of machinery in Russia have appeared. That applied scientific area has come a long and difficult way in development: gathering the experience, changing the conceptions, specifying the models, actively developing methods and means of analysis. The correlation between the role of the monitoring of vibration state and role of "Vibration condition monitoring", i.e. vibration-acoustic analysis has changed.
The rapid development of VAD in eighties of the last century was followed by a well-known period of decline in research & development. The result of that was deficit of the subject literature. Today, due to initiative and cooperation of Russian nondestructive testing (NDT) society, including more than 200 of Russian organizations, many manuals, monographs, and tutorials devoted to methods and means of NDT, technical diagnostics and monitoring were published. However, the scientific society impatiently waits for every new book, especially, on the VAD topics.
This tutorial presents VAD as component part of machinery condition monitoring and shows both general picture and methods of practical usage of the vibration monitoring and diagnostics methodology for detection of defects and malfunctions of machinery.
This tutorial briefly touches upon general issues of VAD methodology which are discussed in a sufficient number of monographs and reference books. To be the most valuable are considered the chapters about practical usage of vibration-acoustic signals for diagnosing and selecting diagnostic features of malfunctions with specification enough for using the provided information for detection of defects and malfunctions. The illustrations, on one hand, are showing the real episodes of condition monitoring and diagnostics of machinery, and, on the other hand, are generalized in the form of spectral masks which allows their practical appliance.
The tutorial is based not only on theoretical data, but, also, on great amount of author’s experience in research, implementation and operation of diagnostic and monitoring systems. It gives full and complete picture of theoretical and practical issues of VAD and monitoring of rotor and piston machines. The content of the tutorial corresponds to the global level of development of VAD and condition monitoring of machinery, and includes the chapters which not only provide knowledge on VAD and monitoring, but, also are useful methodological matter for calculation and analytical tasks, course papers and research projects.
The tutorial is the first comprehensive educational edition in Russian Federation in the field of vibration-acoustic analysis and monitoring of machinery, recommended for publishing by the Education and Methodics Association of higher education institutions of the Russian Federation for training in the field of construction and optics engineering for higher educational students of "Instrument-making" and made for students of the 200100 "Instrument-making" of Higher Professional Training 200102 specialty "Instruments and means of diagnostic and quality control", studying such disciplines as "Automated systems for quality control and diagnostics", "Methods of technical diagnostics", "Vibration monitoring" to become specialists, masters, bachelors, or training to become a vibration-analysis NDT method expert.
Sokolova Asya Grigoryevna,
Cand.Tech.Sci., senior research associate,
head of vibration-acoustic diagnostics laboratory of the
Research Institute for Machine Science named after A.A.Blagonravov of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Balitskii Felix Yanovich,
Cand.Tech.Sci., leading researcher of R&T Center "Kachestvo".
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Fundamentals of machinery vibroacoustic analysis and monitoring: tutorial // Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation, Omsk State Technical University; DYNAMICS SPC. — 2nd edit., with amendments. — Novosibirsk: SB RAS publishing, 2014, 378 p., print run 1000, ISBN 978-5-7692-1383-0