The main goal of equipping hazardous production facilities with a comprehensive monitoring system is ensuring safe resource-saving operation of equipment through preliminary control actions aimed at provision of required level of a technological system’s stability and quality of functioning, as well as making necessary margin of its technogenic, ecological and economic safety. Such features of the comprehensive monitoring system make real-time Manufacturing Execution Systems - MES.
Frequency rates of receiving the information on the technical condition of hazardous production facilities is determined by its fault development speed, and in order to ensure the condition observability, the speed has to be several times smaller than the duration of a fault development up to the limit state in the object of monitoring.
When selecting monitoring objects, the equipment category is set on the basis of risk analysis matrix. Equipment’s criticality level is determined by the importance of a unit on which the equipment operates, as well as the probability of failure during the operation and the degree of technogenic danger, which involves high potential wear rate.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Makhutov N.A. Real-time monitoring of operational risks and condition of machinery – the basis of industrial safety // Federal guide. - 2012. - Vol. 26. - P. 321-326
The article dwells upon the COMPACS® system for comprehensive condition monitoring of machinery and equipment on the example of DCU 21- 10/ЗM of Omsk Refinery.
Equipping the machinery with the stationary COMPACS® system has allowed to eliminate accidents and so called "sudden failures". "Sudden" are those failures which has no observability of faults nucleation and development, their further growth into emergency situation.
Application of the COMPACS® system at the DCU in real production conditions for the first time has allowed to analyze its operation and determine procedure areas where accidents appear. The system automatically indicate the worst area, capturing not only the temperature, but its growth speed and gradients, and issues an expert system message on "unacceptable changing speed and temperature difference" in the section which appeared during coke was being cooling down.
All data on the equipment condition diagnosed by the COMPACS® system are transmitted through the diagnostic network Compacs-Net® to the workplaces of heads of all services and departments in charge of safety and operation of units: through Compacs-Net® the users get the full picture of both machinery and processing equipment’s operability. This allows not only to see the unit condition in general, but also efficiently control personnel’s actions prompted by the system, and also control accuracy of the process conduction.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The system of comprehensive condition monitoring of hazardous production facilities: ways and technologies of implementation // Problems of sustainability of countries and regions in crisis and disasters of modern civilization: materials of the XVII Intern. scientific and practical conf. - Moscow: FGBU GO ChS (FC), 2012. - pp. 167-174
The provision of safe and trouble-free operation of machinery of hazardous production facilities, which significantly influences the technical and economic indexes of production and the occurrence of technogenic incidents, is inextricably connected with the control of machinery performance in real-time.
Today on the majority of enterprises the performance management of repair service as well as its subsidiaries is carried out in two ways. On the one hand, it is carried out by the checking the expenses compliance to the nomenclature and the costs of the approved budget items; on the other hand – by the calculation of the numbers of accidents and incidents caused by skipping of machinery failures and determining the situational losses of machinery or the shutdown.
However, the leading enterprises have already passed on to the observation of the interaction of the production system elements by the introduction of the real-time monitoring system COMPACS®. All this allows to influence the factors of the result achievement, which is, in fact, the essence of the management department of any organization. Through the monitoring of machinery condition it is possible to identify not only the quality of the main and auxiliary personnel, but also the amount of work performed. In this regard, in order to save the resources and reduce the expenses of manufacturing complex it is possible to remove the operating and repair personnel from the complex and transfer them to the separate organization departments. The objective and timely information about the status of the machinery service acts as a link integrating these departments into a common production system.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Gavrin S.V., Kozlov A.A., Yatsyuk N.V. The development of the machinery diagnostic systems // World of oil products. The Oil Companies’ Bulletin – 2012. – № 8. – pp. 43-46
The solution for the problems of safe operation of machinery of hazardous production facilities is provision of the condition observability of the facilities which have the largest impact on technical-and-economic performance of production and occurrence of technical accidents. The condition observability of production facilities can be reached by monitoring of their machines in order to determine its current state and predict the moment when the state turn extreme. The result of monitoring is a complex of diagnoses of monitored facilities included in production complex obtained in inseparably linked time periods during which state doesn’t change.
The machinery degradation process observability allows to eliminate emergency repairs and to carry out planned condition-based repair of machines, which ensures 100% elimination of accidents. Resource-saving means not only reduction of material expenditures, but, also, decreasing of labour force and money expenditures for operation, elimination of consequences of accidents and faults, as well as losses due to downtime of production facilities. Such a clear increase of time-between-repairs of technological units up to 2-5 years (which all companies demand from their plants) is impossible without introduction of a monitoring system – which is a basic element of safe resource-saving operation of refineries and petrochemical companies, providing observability of machinery and the most important static equipment of the main technological units on an integral diagnostic network of the enterprise.
The selection and validation of range of facilities which are to be monitored is carried out by analysis of the production technology scheme including the influence of the facilities on the operational process and technogenic accident probability by means of a special method. As a result, the categories of facility hazard are specified. The final result of the analysis is development of a program of equipping the enterprise with monitoring systems and transferring to condition-based machinery operation. The analysis of reliability of technological units at the modern refineries and petrochemical companies shows that more than three-fourths of all faults happen to machines which high concentration at the units often causes accidents and production troubles, as well as downtime of units and plants.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Kostyukov Al.V., Kostyukov An.V., Boychenko S.N., Belyavsky O.G., Samkov S.F. The experience of introduction and operation of condition monitoring system for potentially hazardous production facilities // Chemical equipment. – 2012. – № 12. – pp. 24-28
The methodology of a diagnostic signal processing, a function chart of the monitoring system are considered in the article. The methodology of monitoring and diagnostics is based on measurement of indirect processes' parameters (vibroacoustic oscillations) therefore, no more than five sensors is established on the cylinder, measurement of direct structural and thermodynamic parameters is described as well.
The structure and principle of expert system's functioning of decision-making is given. Algorithm of automatic expert system includes the calculation diagnostic attributes values based on their normative values, formation sets of diagnostic attributes that correspond to individual classes to malfunction, issuing of expert system messages.
The scheme of a real-time condition monitoring system for piston compressors is presented in the article. The system has consistently-parallel structure of information-measuring equipment, which allows to measure the vibroacoustic signal for condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors and their operation modes. Besides, the system allows to measure parameters of other physical processes, for example, pressure in decreasing spaces (the indicator diagram) for monitoring and diagnostics, the inlet pressure and flowing pressure of each cylinder, inlet and delivery temperature of gas, valves temperature, position of a rod, leakage through compression packing and others.
Naumenko A.P., Kostyukov V.N. The Piston Compressor: The Methodology of the Real-Time Condition Monitoring // The 25th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management (COMADEM-2012)
As shown by the experience, substantial reliability improvement of refineries and petrochemical facilities without equipment replacement and reconstruction may be provided by introduction of the monitoring tools at the all stages of units’ lifecycle. The condition monitoring allows transferring most of the failures from “sudden” to “creeping failure” category due to early detection of errors and warning personnel about progressive damage which already exists but may not be dangerous yet, since it does not violate the Refinery units’ operability.
Relevant regulatory frameworks in the form of international standards are ascertained only common approaches in monitoring problem solving (ISO 13374) both by the vibration measuring (ISO 13373, 10816) and by the measuring of parameters of various processes (ISO 13379, 13380).
Sharing various methods of technical diagnostics and nondestructive testing for technical state assessment, on one hand, is a really difficult and urgent problem due to the need of selection of the complex diagnostic features. On the other hand, various facilities require selection of the specific diagnostics methods and features.
The solution of the problem can be found in basic researches carried out over the last 40 years, as well as relevant testing of the suggested solutions, and operation of the computer monitoring systems for accident prevention and condition control (COMPACS®) in real conditions of the productions.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Boychenko S.N. Russian standards for technical state monitoring of hazardous production facilities // NDT days 2012, pp. 300-304
Since the beginning of the second half of the last century pioneer researches on vibration-acoustic (acoustic in that time) diagnostics (VAD) of machinery in Russia have appeared. That applied scientific area has come a long and difficult way in development: gathering the experience, changing the conceptions, specifying the models, actively developing methods and means of analysis. The correlation between the role of the monitoring of vibration state and role of "Vibration condition monitoring", i.e. vibration-acoustic analysis has changed.
The rapid development of VAD in eighties of the last century was followed by a well-known period of decline in research & development. The result of that was deficit of the subject literature. Today, due to initiative and cooperation of Russian nondestructive testing (NDT) society, including more than 200 of Russian organizations, many manuals, monographs, and tutorials devoted to methods and means of NDT, technical diagnostics and monitoring were published. However, the scientific society impatiently waits for every new book, especially, on the VAD topics.
This tutorial presents VAD as component part of machinery condition monitoring and shows both general picture and methods of practical usage of the vibration monitoring and diagnostics methodology for detection of defects and malfunctions of machinery.
This tutorial briefly touches upon general issues of VAD methodology which are discussed in a sufficient number of monographs and reference books. To be the most valuable are considered the chapters about practical usage of vibration-acoustic signals for diagnosing and selecting diagnostic features of malfunctions with specification enough for using the provided information for detection of defects and malfunctions. The illustrations, on one hand, are showing the real episodes of condition monitoring and diagnostics of machinery, and, on the other hand, are generalized in the form of spectral masks which allows their practical appliance.
The tutorial is based not only on theoretical data, but, also, on great amount of author’s experience in research, implementation and operation of diagnostic and monitoring systems. It gives full and complete picture of theoretical and practical issues of VAD and monitoring of rotor and piston machines. The content of the tutorial corresponds to the global level of development of VAD and condition monitoring of machinery, and includes the chapters which not only provide knowledge on VAD and monitoring, but, also are useful methodological matter for calculation and analytical tasks, course papers and research projects.
The tutorial is the first comprehensive educational edition in Russian Federation in the field of vibration-acoustic analysis and monitoring of machinery, recommended for publishing by the Education and Methodics Association of higher education institutions of the Russian Federation for training in the field of construction and optics engineering for higher educational students of "Instrument-making" and made for students of the 200100 "Instrument-making" of Higher Professional Training 200102 specialty "Instruments and means of diagnostic and quality control", studying such disciplines as "Automated systems for quality control and diagnostics", "Methods of technical diagnostics", "Vibration monitoring" to become specialists, masters, bachelors, or training to become a vibration-analysis NDT method expert.
Sokolova Asya Grigoryevna,
Cand.Tech.Sci., senior research associate,
head of vibration-acoustic diagnostics laboratory of the
Research Institute for Machine Science named after A.A.Blagonravov of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Balitskii Felix Yanovich,
Cand.Tech.Sci., leading researcher of R&T Center "Kachestvo".
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Fundamentals of machinery vibroacoustic analysis and monitoring: tutorial // Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation, Omsk State Technical University; DYNAMICS SPC. — 2nd edit., with amendments. — Novosibirsk: SB RAS publishing, 2014, 378 p., print run 1000, ISBN 978-5-7692-1383-0
The report addresses the real-time condition monitoring of technical state and automatic vibration analysis of auxiliary equipment’s bearing supports, in particular, the control of the feed-pump operating modes of thermal power stations. The causes that lead to premature birth and development of defects in rolling bearings are identified and the development of activities ensuring safe and continuous operation of the auxiliary equipment of thermal power stations is carried out.
Collection and analysis of vibration parameters of pumping units during their operation are realized by means of real-time condition monitoring. Spectral analysis of vibration parameters of one of the pumps showed the presence of frequency components, which mark violations in the operating practices of the pump, the development of imbalance and, as a consequence, the development of defects in the bearings after a long-term operation of the unit.
Timely warning of the personnel on the operation of the unit with "UNACCEPTABLE" state and automatic warning about the required changes the operational process allows to recover the pump operational process in due time and prevent further development of defects.
Kostyukov V.N. 2002. Monitoring of Safety of Manufacture (Moscow: Mashinostroenie).
Kostyukov V.N., Bojchenko S.N. and Kostyukov A.V. 1999. Automated Control Systems of Safe Resource-Saving Operation of Oil Refining and Petrochemistry Equipment (ACS SMSRTM™ COMPACS®) (Moscow: Mashinostroenie).
GOST R 53565 2010. Condition Control and Equipment Diagnostics. Condition Monitoring of Hazardous Manufacture Equipment. Vibration of Centrifugal Pumping and Compressor Units ( Moscow: STANDARTINFORM).
Kostyukov V.N., Tarasov E.V. Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics of Rolling Bearings of High-voltage Electric Motors during Their Operation. The 24th Int. Cong. on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics Engineering Management (Stavanger, Norway, 30 May - 1 June 2011) pp 900-904.
Kostyukov V.N., Tarasov E.V. Real-time condition monitoring of thermal power plants feed-pumps by rolling bearings supports vibration // The 25th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management (COMADEM-2012)
The regularity and safety of the suburban passenger transportations on the Russian Federation railway lines depends on reliable functioning of each unit as well as it is substantially up to operational efficiency of more than 7,5 thousand electric train sections. Today the reliability of an electric train can be maintained by the ongoing preventive maintenance system formed on the schedule-based preventive principle which provides the list and the volume of the required control and recovery operations.
The cycle of large-volume current repair works in depot includes: uninstalling and diassembling operations for revision, repair, assembly, testing, transit of equipment and components, as well as its installation back to the electric train, which are time- and labour-consuming works. On the last stages of the cycle the repaired, checked and operative equipment may be damaged. Also, there is no guarantee for operation of the equipment within the system of the electric train because of the functionality violations.
Lack of the appropriate means and methods for the objective control of repair quality, assembling and adjustment of demanding and the most complex electric train systems especially electrical circuits, make impossible to control the quality of the carried out works. As a result, number of running electric trains with hidden problems occuring after the repair reaches 30-40%. Additionally, they can have lost of new defects caused by the“human factor”. The length of debugging stage, successful acceptance tests as well as further no-failure operation of an electric train, in this case, directly depends on qualification and other subjective qualities of the debuggers.
On the basis of the complex systems of automatic diagnostics, it is possible to change that situation as follows: to carry out the debugging stage at the repair and maintenance department reducing its duration, to provide an objective assessment of repair quality as well as assembly and adjustment of the electric train systems and equipment, and, consequently, to increase the percent of faultless results of the first acceptance test. Such systems are based on the automatic expert failure-detecting system which excludes the subjective failures of the diagnostician and provides reliable quantitative and qualitative state assessment for the most complex and demanding electric trains' systems in accordance with the requirements of the major regulative documents.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Kazarin D.V., Basakin V.V. Diagnostics of electric multiple-unit train electrical circuits’ equipment during the debugging and acceptance testing // NDT days 2012, pp. 309-313
The standard applies to the stationary piston compressors for Т2-Т6 explosive gas groups according to the classification  as well as for the stationary piston compressors using the harmful gases, 1–2 class of hazard according to GOST 12.1.007. Also, the standard sets guidance on the assessment of their vibration state during operation and acceptance tests after mounting and repair.
The standard does not apply to refrigerating and oxygen compressors, to the compressors that used to handle the radioactive gases and gases of an acetylene series as well as to the gas-engine compressors.
In accordance with the standard recommendations, the assessment of the equipment vibration state is based on the joint measurements of the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the unit casing as well as compressor mechanism or the compressor case in the direction of the vibration vector maximum.
The vibration measurements in the range from 2 to 3000 Hz are used for an assessment of the vibration state. For the in-depth study to find out the fault condition or the diagnostics, the carrying out of the vibration measurement in the range up to 10000 Hz and higher is recommended.
The standard's requirements may be used in conjunction with recommendation for assessments of vibration state of the general-purpose stationary piston compressors (see, for example, , ), including the assessment of the monitored vibration parameter value changes criteria.
The standard was developed by the Scientific and DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center (DYNAMICS SPC), Non-Profit Organization "Research Centre on the monitoring and diagnostics of the technical system" (NPO "RDC CD").
TR CU 012/2011. On safety of equipment intended for use in explosive atmospheres.
ISO 10816-8:2014. Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts — Part 8: Reciprocating compressor systems.
API Standard 670 (R2010) Machinery Protection Systems.
GOST ISO 10816-1-97 Vibration. Control of the machines condition by vibration measurements on the non-rotating units. Part 1. General requirements.
GOST R 56233-2014. Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Vibration generated by land-based reciprocating compressors // Introduced on 01.12.2015. Moscow: "Standardinform" - 2015 - 20 p.