Many years of researches in the field of condition monitoring and diagnostics of piston compressors have allowed to realize modern methodology and achievements in the field of piston machines condition monitoring and diagnostics, which allows to carry out automatic real-time monitoring and diagnostics on the basis of multivariate processing of the diagnostic signals and algorithms of automatic functioning of the expert decision support system:
real-time monitoring and diagnostics methodology is based on the measurement of the indirect processes’ parameters(acoustic vibrations), which requires not more than 5 sensors per cylinder, measurement of direct structural and thermodynamic parameters are also available;
algorithms of the real-time decision-making expert system with an automatic identification (diagnosing in a speed rates of diagnostic signals measurement) of more than 23 malfunctions of piston compressor assemblies and their danger rates, and also issuing of purposeful prescriptions to the personnel in order to conduct compensating actions;
scientifically grounded period of diagnosing allows to get static and dynamic errors of identification of less than 5% rate, which makes possible to carry out condition monitoring of critical equipment of the first class and other classes, as well as a production facility in general;
the COMPACS® real-time monitoring system has a distributed parallel-serial structure, requires much less amount of sensors and cable, and, consequently, less installation and maintenance costs, provides low cost of ownership and switches piston compressor operation to the condition-monitored one, ensuring high economic efficiency of implementation..
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko А.P. Systems for real-time automatic condition monitoring and diagnostics of piston compressors // Mashinostroyenie i tekhnosfera XXI veka (Mechanical Engineering and Technosphere of the XXI Century). - 2011. - pp.91-99
A bearing is a main element, influencing work capacity of any machinery unit, since the reliability of the bearing sets a limit on the unit operation life.
The usage of the diagnostic means of machinery condition at all stages of its life: fabrication, mounting, operation, repair, allows timely detection of errors, elements of a low quality, elements which condition is critical or near critical, and to take proper measures in order to increase the reliability of the machinery.
The article dwells upon the issues of the diagnostics of the machinery, rolling bearings directly in operation.
Kostyukov V.N., Tarasov E.V. The research on the vibration-acoustic features of rolling bearings of high-voltage electric motors in operation // Glavniy Energetic (Chief power engineer). - 2011. - №8. - pp. 65-68
Observability of the machinery degradation process in real time allows to eliminate emergency repairs and carry out the scheduled condition-monitored repairs only, which ensures total elimination of emergencies.
Resource-saving is not only the reduction of material resources consumption, but, also, the reduction of labour and financial resources expenditures on elimination of accidents consequences, machinery break-downs and downtime losses. The real growth of the units’ run-to-failure period up to 2-5 years, which nowadays all companies demands from the plants, is impossible without implementation of the COMPACS® monitoring systems – basic element of safe resource-saving operation of petrochemical plants and refineries.
Highly reliable diagnostics can be proved each time after the shutdown and decommissioning of a unit by a personnel due to the system warning. This is a source of emergencies and losses elimination, the increase of run-to-failure time, with the usage of the full machinery resource, decrease of all kinds of expenses, substantial speeding-up of the commissioning process.
At the same time, the COMPACS® systems structure allows to configure its software and hardware easily in order to conduct monitoring of the different kind of the equipment – centrifugal, console and double-seat pumps, air- and gas-blowers, fans and air-cooling devices, centrifugal and piston compressors, etc.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. Innovative systems of vibration-acoustic monitoring of the machinery condition - COMPACS // Neftepererabotka i neftechimiya (Refining and Petrochemistry). - 2011. - №8. - pp. 3-11
During the operation of the COMPACS® condition monitoring system the resource-saving technology of a wheel-rolling mill operation at "Vyksa Steel Works" JSC was tested, besides there wasn`t no breakdown and no incident due to a sudden equipment failure.
Implemented at "Vyksa Steel Works", JSC the equipment operation technology based on its actual health of the Automated Control System for Safe-Money-Saving Real-Time Maintenance of equipment (SMSRTM™) COMPACS® allows by equipping hazardous production units with systems for integrated health monitoring to provide a safe resource-saving equipment operation, to switch to operation based on actual health of machines and technological equipment, to improve significantly the efficiency and profitability of production.
The required stability reserve of the technological system, its operation quality, the necessary reserve of its technological, environmental and economic safety are achieved by the observability of hazardous production units health in the process of technological mode, during the process of technological mode, automatic scheduling of equipment repairs and maintenance depending on its condition and timely taking measures, ensured breakdowns absence and minimal production costs.
Kostyukov. V.N., Sinitsyn A.A., Kuznetsov O.V., Rubanenko A.S., Rykin A.V. The resource-saving technology of metallurgical equipment operation based on the COMPACS condition monitoring system // Stal (Steel). - 2011. - No. 8. - pp.2-5
A cooperation of Omsk Refinery with the Scientific and Production Center "Dynamics" began in 1989. In September, 1990, the industry's first stationary system for vibration diagnostics of NSD-type pump units was implemented on the deasphalting unit 36/1-3, for the first time the parameter of acceleration was applied as a diagnostic sign.
Thus, Omsk refinery made its first steps on the way to providing security of units of dynamic equipment by the implementation of the COMPACS® systems for automatic condition monitoring and diagnostics.
For more than 20-year history of the cooperation, about 2000 units of 27 assemblies, standing in a key position in the process, were equipped with the COMPACS® systems at Omsk Refinery. The highest rang tests of the COMPACS® technologies were repeatedly conducted at Omsk refinery, in this case, all outputted inferences confirmed the urgency of problems solving by the COMPACS® systems and reflected the revolutionary role of Omsk Refinery in issues of safety provision.
One of the decisive conditions for the Omsk Refinery formation as one of the world leaders in the oil refining industry was the use of safe resource-saving technology of equipment operation on the basis of automatic diagnostics and condition monitoring in real time COMPACS®.
Kostyukov V.N. Time-proved cooperation // Neft & Gaz Sibiry (Oil & gas of Siberia). - 2011. - №. 3(4). - August. - p.22
Due to many years of the fundamental and applied researches, and also to wide-ranging implementation of the COMPACS® systems for automatic diagnostics and comprehensive monitoring of equipment condition to the refineries and petrochemical enterprises in Russia and the CIS, Scientific Production center "Dynamics" has developed the national standards of Russian Federation in the field of equipment condition monitoring of hazardous industries, which put into effect from the last January by the Federal Agency of technical regulation and metrology.
The above mentioned standards allow to switch from schedule-based preventive repair to the safe resource-saving operation of hazardous industrial based on the actual condition with the stationary monitoring systems in real time. A technology of equipment safe resource-saving operation is designed by DYNAMICS SPC and recommended by the State mine technical inspection and the Ministry of fuel and energy of Russian Federation in 1994, when the first guidance document came out and allowed to switch from schedule-based preventive repair to the equipment operation control according to the real-time condition monitoring by the COMPACS® systems.
Taking into account that the development rate of the malfunction is limited, based on the required period of measurement channels polling, the usage of series-parallel distributed system structure is expedient for providing piston compressors condition monitoring. Such system makes it is easier and cheaper to provide the explosion safety of the measuring circuits.
Joint rates of the vector of the centrifugal pump and compressor units vibration parameters, including not only the traditional vibration velocity and vibration displacement, but also the vibration acceleration and the growth rate of vibration parameters of the centrifugal pump and compressor units, which are still not normalized in any international standard or standards of other countries, were published for the first time in the world.
The rates were refined and expanded for the most units, operated on the refineries and petrochemical enterprises in Russia, in standards by "Russian technical expertise" association, SIU (scientific - industrial union) “RISKOM” and GOST R, which were published later.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The innovative technology of safe resource-saving operation of technological complex of refineries and petrochemical companies // Oil & Gas Journal. - 2011. - №. 8. - August. - pp.58-59
The necessary and sufficient requirements to functional, diagnostic, information, and other diagnostics and monitoring systems capabilities (SDM) are defined in GOST R 53563 and GOST R 53564 and the modern level of information-measuring equipment development provides an opportunity to collect and process the data synchronously and asynchronously through multiple channels with the reference to the shaft rotation angle in a given range of frequencies - from shares and units of Hz to several MHz.
It is advisable to use the power of computers and digital signal processors to calculate the diagnostic signs of malfunctions. However, the determining factor of the data-processing system development for piston machines monitoring management is the cost. In this case, as a rule, the main problem is to provide the system explosion safety.
Taking into account that the development rate of the malfunction is limited, based on the required period of measurement channels polling, the usage of series-parallel distributed system structure seems to be expedient for providing piston compressors condition monitoring. In such a system it is easier and cheaper to provide the explosion safety of the measuring circuits.
The most optimized from these points of view (the cost of one channel, explosion safety) is the COMPACS® automated system for safe resource-saving operation of equipment of refineries and petrochemical enterprises (SMSRTM™), realizing the SMСD™ - strategy of minimum cost diagnostics.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Development and implementation of diagnostic and monitoring systems of piston compressors // Kompressornaya technica i pnevmatica (Compressors and Pneumatics). - 2011. - № 5 (July). - pp.31-36
A task to ensure a guaranteed level of production safety getting the planned result with minimum costs is sharply set to refineries and petrochemical enterprises. The operation and the equipment repair play an important part since these kinds of costs are, in fact, situational and form more than 40% of the processing cost.
The efficiency of refineries and petrochemical enterprises is mostly due to the costs of material and labor resources for repair equipment, and the amount of losses from accidents and downtimes. The rate of the equipment wear is largely determined by the adequacy of operating and maintenance staff exposure to it. If the other enterprises expense item, for example, for electricity, are determined by the production technology, and cannot be changed significantly without a radical modernization and great investments, it is necessary to manage the operating costs and the equipment life. For this purpose it is necessary to ensure the observability of the production complex health by its monitoring, i.e. the monitoring of the operated equipment health to determine the current health and predicting the moment, when it is reaching the limiting state.
A technological equipment of the refinery and petrochemical enterprises includes the dynamic (pumps, compressors, blowers, ACU (air cooling units) etc.) and static equipment (columns, tanks, pipes, etc.) for the diagnostics and monitoring of which various technical means are often used. The world trend of subspecialists technologies of stationary and portable diagnostic instruments of the specific type of equipment leads to the appearance of a large variety of systems, produced by different companies and almost incompatible with each other, that doesn`t allow to integrate them into a single information space - ACS of the enterprise.
An example of a comprehensive approach to monitoring of refineries process unit equipment condition is the COMPACS® system, ensuring the observability of the dynamic and major static equipment of the main process units on one hardware platform with the results of monitoring transferred into an integrated diagnostic network of enterprises Compacs-Net®.
The article is devoted to the brief vibration analysis history, describes the principles of the COMPACS® system operation, gives the examples of its usage, shows the economic effect of the system application and the monitoring methodology.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. The Automated Control System for Safe-Money-Saving Real-Time Maintenance of equipment (SMSRTM™) COMPACS is the basis of the transition to the increased run-to-failure of refinery process units // Council of Chief mechanics. - 2011. - pp. 57-75
The operation of the electric motors, which are in poor health, leads to the direct financial losses, connected with an unpredictable failure of the equipment and, as a result, the violation of flow, and also the considerable cost of electricity, due to the high power consumption.
The diagnostics of the rotary equipment is usually made by the vibration parameter. However, the diagnostics of the equipment by the power consumption parameter has a great potential, since that allows to increase the depth of the diagnostics of the so-called electrical defects, i.e. defects and failures, connected with the electromagnetic forces disbalance. For instance, if the resistance to shaft movement occurs, so it would be reflected in the change of the respective current signal, and in the increasing of power consumption.
The physics principle in the basis of diagnostic complex operation is that any perturbations in the operation of the electric or mechanic part of an electric motor and equipment, connected with it, lead to the changes of the magnetic flux in the gap of the electric machine and, as a result, to the consumption current modulation.
Tkachenko A.A., Naumenko A.P. Research on the dependence of the parameters of the electric motor current consumption on its health // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp. 217-219
Piston compressors are the indispensable equipment of oil-refining enterprises, the failure of which may lead to a significant decrease of production, and costly repairs, increasing the danger to life and health of workers.
One of the problems, arising from the operation of piston compressors and requiring an immediate detection, is a hydraulic impact. The hydraulic shock is a phenomenon, which is accompanied by an abrupt pressure increase in the decreasing space. The hydraulic impacts can cause the destructions of cylinder-piston group details and emergency situation occurrence.
The implementation of the automatic vibroacoustic condition monitoring and diagnostics of piston compressors COMPACS® allows to successfully prevent downtimes and accidents caused by hydraulic impacts. Diagnostics and monitoring are based on the control of the level of vibroacoustic sensor signal, axially proceeding from the cylinder cover at the moment of approach of the piston to the top dead center and the level of condensate in the separator. However, the diagnosis reliability increasing will always be an urgent task.
Sidorenko I.S., Naumenko A.P. Assessment of the possibility of using the characteristic function for hydraulic impacts diagnostics // Science, education, business (“Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes”). - 2011. - pp. 215-217