The regularity and safety of the suburban passenger transportations on the Russian Federation railway lines depends on reliable functioning of each unit as well as it is substantially up to operational efficiency of more than 7,5 thousand electric train sections. Today the reliability of an electric train can be maintained by the ongoing preventive maintenance system formed on the schedule-based preventive principle which provides the list and the volume of the required control and recovery operations.
The cycle of large-volume current repair works in depot includes: uninstalling and diassembling operations for revision, repair, assembly, testing, transit of equipment and components, as well as its installation back to the electric train, which are time- and labour-consuming works. On the last stages of the cycle the repaired, checked and operative equipment may be damaged. Also, there is no guarantee for operation of the equipment within the system of the electric train because of the functionality violations.
Lack of the appropriate means and methods for the objective control of repair quality, assembling and adjustment of demanding and the most complex electric train systems especially electrical circuits, make impossible to control the quality of the carried out works. As a result, number of running electric trains with hidden problems occuring after the repair reaches 30-40%. Additionally, they can have lost of new defects caused by the“human factor”. The length of debugging stage, successful acceptance tests as well as further no-failure operation of an electric train, in this case, directly depends on qualification and other subjective qualities of the debuggers.
On the basis of the complex systems of automatic diagnostics, it is possible to change that situation as follows: to carry out the debugging stage at the repair and maintenance department reducing its duration, to provide an objective assessment of repair quality as well as assembly and adjustment of the electric train systems and equipment, and, consequently, to increase the percent of faultless results of the first acceptance test. Such systems are based on the automatic expert failure-detecting system which excludes the subjective failures of the diagnostician and provides reliable quantitative and qualitative state assessment for the most complex and demanding electric trains' systems in accordance with the requirements of the major regulative documents.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Kazarin D.V., Basakin V.V. Diagnostics of electric multiple-unit train electrical circuits’ equipment during the debugging and acceptance testing // NDT days 2012, pp. 309-313
The standard applies to the stationary piston compressors for Т2-Т6 explosive gas groups according to the classification  as well as for the stationary piston compressors using the harmful gases, 1–2 class of hazard according to GOST 12.1.007. Also, the standard sets guidance on the assessment of their vibration state during operation and acceptance tests after mounting and repair.
The standard does not apply to refrigerating and oxygen compressors, to the compressors that used to handle the radioactive gases and gases of an acetylene series as well as to the gas-engine compressors.
In accordance with the standard recommendations, the assessment of the equipment vibration state is based on the joint measurements of the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the unit casing as well as compressor mechanism or the compressor case in the direction of the vibration vector maximum.
The vibration measurements in the range from 2 to 3000 Hz are used for an assessment of the vibration state. For the in-depth study to find out the fault condition or the diagnostics, the carrying out of the vibration measurement in the range up to 10000 Hz and higher is recommended.
The standard's requirements may be used in conjunction with recommendation for assessments of vibration state of the general-purpose stationary piston compressors (see, for example, , ), including the assessment of the monitored vibration parameter value changes criteria.
The standard was developed by the Scientific and DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center (DYNAMICS SPC), Non-Profit Organization "Research Centre on the monitoring and diagnostics of the technical system" (NPO "RDC CD").
TR CU 012/2011. On safety of equipment intended for use in explosive atmospheres.
ISO 10816-8:2014. Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts — Part 8: Reciprocating compressor systems.
API Standard 670 (R2010) Machinery Protection Systems.
GOST ISO 10816-1-97 Vibration. Control of the machines condition by vibration measurements on the non-rotating units. Part 1. General requirements.
GOST R 56233-2014. Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Vibration generated by land-based reciprocating compressors // Introduced on 01.12.2015. Moscow: "Standardinform" - 2015 - 20 p.
Traction electric motor (TEM) is the most important assembly of the electrical-driven rolling stock (EDRS). Out of a total number of EDRS failures only about 30% are TEM failures. If one of TEM fails, it causes higher loads for other motors and that shortens the motors' lifetime.
Today there are several problems in the TEM diagnostics:
lack of the modern diagnostic systems in the depot and maintenance depot;
lack of the system viewpoint: every system diagnoses certain parameters of TEM which are not in the common base of the specific TEM.
In the article the complex diagnostic method for traction electric motor is presented. The method will allow changing of the traction electric motor repair type from the operation-based repair into condition-based repair.
Melk V.V. Developing of a method for complex diagnostics of traction electric motors // Operational reliability of locomotive park and increase of efficiency of train haulage. - Omsk: OSTU, 2012. - pp. 417-421
The paper is devoted to the new method of vibration analysis by means of the system for Real-Time Condition Monitoring of machinery (RTCM). The speed of generation and delivery of diagnostic instructions to the personnel by the RTCM systems must exceed the rate of industrial equipment degradation.
The paper presents the research on the regularity in formation of mixture of noise and periodic components of vibrations (MNPCV) of a pump. A generalized static diagnostic model of vibration has been developed to provide diagnostics of the unit by the method of recurrent selection of components from MNPCV in time and frequency domain.
The research shows that MNPCV are generated by a random process of occurrence and development of malfunctions and defects in the pump. With regard to vibration analysis, the principle of information completeness (π-principle) has been formulated. It states that in order to improve the credibility it is necessary to combine selection and use of MNPCV blocks for vibration analysis, which together form complete statistical group.
The paper illustrates the efficiency of the proposed methods in the diagnostics of defects of tooth gear, bearing, especially in the heavily loaded antifriction bearing with the radial clearance.
Kostyukov V.N. Real-time condition monitoring of gear pumps by the recurrent selection of the noise and periodic components of vibration // The Ninth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies (CM-2012/MFPT-2012)
The standard applies to rotodynamic and screw pump and compressor units, driven by electric motors and/or steam turbines with gearboxes or multipliers, as well as to fans, exhausters, blowers and air cooling units with a capacity of more than 2 kW and a nominal rotation frequency from 120 to 15000 min-1 and sets guidance on assessment of their vibration state during operation and acceptance tests after mounting and repair.
This Standard is intended for usage in conjunction with GOST ISO 10816-3. This standard complements GOST ISO 10816-3 with regard to joint use of acceleration, velocity, displacement parameters as well as rates of their changes for assessment of the hazardous equipment vibration state.
The standard was developed by DYNAMICS SPC, Russian Technical Expertise, SIU "RISCOM", NPO "RDC CD".
GOST 32106-2013. Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Vibration generated by rotodynamic pump and compressor units // Introduced on 01.11.2014. Moscow: "Standardinform" - 2014 - 8 p.
The main task of the technical diagnostics is determination of an object state when the data is limited. Analysis of a state is usually done in operation when the data is hard to obtain. Often there is no way to make an unambiguous conclusion, so it may be necessary to use statistical methods.
State determination depends on the completeness of the information, and the more information about the object we have, the lower the risk of an error there is. In this way, searching the object information is a relevant question.
In addition to the statistical methods, a spectral analysis method is widespread in vibration analysis. It allows to give characteristics to a frequency content of a measured signal. Cepstral analysis and wavelet analysis are less common. Using of methods of the fractal analysis is recommended to improve reliability and accuracy of the state determination.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Pavlenkov D.V. Assessment of possibility of using the fractal analysis for machinery diagnostics // Operational reliability of locomotive park and increase of efficiency of train haulage. - Omsk: OSTU, 2012. - pp. 143-149
One of the most important tasks in the increase of the maintenance quality is an improvement of the operating reliability for motor driven rolling stock (MDRS) when there are low maintenance expenses as well as a limited period of time for repair and maintenance.
In the current state the rolling stock is maintained by the schedule-based preventive repair. That’s the reason of the high consumption of resources, regardless of the real operating conditions of the unit in the MDRS. At the same time, the origin and development of defects lead to unscheduled repairs as well as additional expenditures.
The solution can be provided by the on-board condition monitoring system. It makes an assessment of the state of every unit and gives objective information about the expediency of a further operation in real time. The effectiveness of the system is in its continuous operation and making a diagnosis within a period, which is less than the period prior to a malfunction development to a critical (emergency) condition. This makes possible the gradual transition from the resource-demanding schedule-based preventive repair system to the condition-based maintenance.
Machinery of auxiliary circuits including the system of the auxiliary machines is the most important machines, which provide normal functioning of all electric train systems.
The necessity of this machinery real-time condition monitoring is caused by hard service conditions, in comparison with all-industrial machines. The following conditions could cause an early mechanical failure as well as unplanned repair: the contact mains voltage fluctuation, sudden temperature difference, the high humidity, and also vibration.
Tsurpal A.E. Selection of the parameters for diagnostics of electric train auxiliary circuits’ equipment // Operational reliability of locomotive park and increase of efficiency of train haulage. - Omsk: OSTU, 2012. - pp. 143-149
The fundamental causes of operational problems of potentially dangerous and critical objects are: low objectivity of the technical condition assessment and low observability of hidden degradation processes of technical state of the objects, caused by the wear and inadequate actions of the technological, servicing and repair personnel.
Those problems can be solved with the results of real-time technical condition monitoring of the objects. On the basis of the existing normative and scientific-methodical documents the goals and objectives of monitoring are formulated and their solutions are pointed out in the article.
The complex real time condition monitoring system is also presented there.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Designing and operation experience of real-time monitoring systems // The Ninth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies (CM-2012/MFPT-2012)
The diagnostics of the electropneumatic system realizes the principle of unit-by-unit diagnostics with the maximal involving of regular equipment of the electric unit: compressors, control transformer, control circuit devices and manual control parts which provide autonomy from outer air-supplying sources and high automation of diagnostics process.
In the process of the electropneumatic system diagnostics of electric train section the COMPACS®-EXPRESS-TR3 system carries out an automatic control of the testing process, including: the power and control of electric circuits and pneumatic system of electric train section; management of gasdynamic processes in a pneumatic brake network, imitating different modes of equipment operation; passing the control signals into the power and auxiliary electric circuits.
The system determines quantitative characteristics of the physical values used as informative diagnostic signs: tension, current, pure resistance, pressure, time intervals, amount and duration of the impulses repetition and displays them in the monitor in a special panel. An embedded automatic expert system, in accordance with the programmed rules, issues goal indicating prescriptions on the screen to the personnel on the further actions in the form of text (expert) messages and presents the diagnostic signs on the basis of the icons colored according to the equipment state danger level.
Kostyukov A.V., Shchelkanov A.V., Kazarin D.V. Methods of EMU-train electropneumatic systems diagnostics // Operational reliability of locomotive park and increase of efficiency of train haulage. - Omsk: OSTU, 2012. - pp. 121-125
To attribute an object to one of the state types it is necessary to know the boarders of the states’ differences, also, it is reasonable to use deviations of diagnostic signs from the etalons to establish the differences.
Depending on the deviation value of diagnostic signs vector, determines the deviation of its components, traditionally differs the following main types of states: NORMAL, ACTIONS REQUIRED, UNACCEPTABLE. With the disposal of large sizes of experimental data obtained on real units with various technical conditions, the statistical analysis methods may be used for determining the borders.
For the normalization of diagnostic signs by experimental data a method described in the article has been developed and tested.
The examples of determining the borders of state differences presented in the article agree well with the data of technical standards and prove an attainable, thanks to the available metrological characteristics and implement methods of diagnosis, high discriminating ability and reliability of the faults detection at the electric equipment of various groups, particularly at the electrical control circuits, power and auxiliary circuits.
The border differences of states determined by the presented method, have a small diagnostic error, which does not exceed 3% for the 1st –class error, and 2% for the 2nd-class error with a confidence level of 0.95, which can be confirmed by the operation results of the COMPACS®-EXPRESS-TP3. The results are actively used in the technological cycles of maintenance and repair of suburban rolling stock depot in a number of multiple units of "Russian Railways, JSC".
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Kazarin D.V. Method of regulation for diagnostic signs of EMU-train electric circuits // Operational reliability of locomotive park and increase of efficiency of train haulage. - Omsk: OSTU, 2012. - pp. 110-116