The adopted system of maintenance and repair, relied on the resources of skilled labour force and a substantial reserve of equipment reliability for a long time, in the late twentieth century became ineffective. Numerous manual controls and diagnostics devices, existing in the technological arsenal of depot, due to low reliability of the obtained results, due to the implementation of ineffective ways of control by elements, low automation of the process of diagnosis, did not provide a way of equipment condition monitoring in the necessary volume and quality. As a result, the intensity of faults and failures of rolling stock has increased dramatically.
To change the situation revolutionary became possible only by using the automatic diagnostic systems for different types of rolling stock equipment.
The DYNAMICS SPC accumulated experience in condition monitoring and diagnostics of hazardous production facilities of various industry and transport branches has allowed to make a list of requirements and create the unique software-hardware complex – the COMPACS®-EXPRESS-TR3.
The comprehensive system for train unit diagnostics is an innovative research and designed for detailed, complex condition assessment of the main train subsystems with interactive operation at pre-repair and after-repair testing. Among the train subsystems, to be diagnosed with the system there are the control circuits, electro-pneumatic brake circuits, power circuit, heating circuit and auxiliary machinery circuits, including their electrical insulation, pneumatic system, wheel-motor units and the current collectors. As the statistics shows the subsystems’ data and the machinery included in them are most strongly influenced by the "human factor" during the repair and by external factors during operation. According to the statistics, not less than 85% of all damages and almost 80% of the cost for the maintenance and repair of rolling stock is depending on this equipment.
An effective principle of each unit diagnostics with maximum involvement of EMU-units standard equipment in the testing process is implemented and successfully approved by the system. As a consequence, it provides the autonomy and automation of the diagnostic process.
During the tests performed in the automatic emulation of various operational modes of the electric train machinery, the system determines the quantitative characteristics of the parameters and processes used as informative diagnostic features: vibration, signal spectra, voltage, current, resistance, pressure, force, time intervals, number of impulses and displays them on the monitor screen. In accordance with the programmed algorithm, a built-in automatic expert system displays purposeful instructions to the personnel for their further action in the form of text expert messages and provides a high-quality display of diagnostic signs based on the multi-colored icons, the color of which corresponds to the particular danger level of the machinery condition.
With the help of the present innovative research, for the first time for depots it became possible to:
reliably and efficiently detect failures and hidden defects of machinery, which decrease performance index and lead to the increase in power consumption of the train in general;
discover parts and machines which impair operational condition of electric machines and high-voltage switching devices;
use full resource of assemblies and machines with saving of their maintainability, consequently reducing the necessity in groundless repairs;
provide purposeful work of the maintenance staff aimed at elimination of the present defects and their root-causes;
reduce the labor intensity of the train control and set-up;
almost completely eliminate the faults in operation and unplanned repairs, due to reduction of the main cause – unsatisfactory quality of the repairs in depots.
The implementation of the innovative systems for the comprehensive condition diagnostics of the train units in such amount is carried out for the first time in Russia and surpasses the global level. It has a high economic and social impact, and is a powerful tool for increase of safety and uninterruptedness of railway transport operation. It creates prerequisites for fast reconstruction of the repair system on safe resource-saving basis.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V. Comprehensive diagnostics of EMU-trains in depot // Eurasia News (Evrazia Vesti), Sept. 2012, p.30
Due to wide application of computer technology allowing the large data arrays processing and the automation of PM planning with regard to the information received on diagnostics, maintenance, repair of equipment, data about actual failures of equipment, the new products such as CMMS (computerized maintenance management software) and EAM (Enterprise Asset Management) have come on the market. These products aim at planning the diagnostics maintenance and repair work of equipment, warehouse stock of spare parts, etc., by using the information about equipment range and configuration, periodicity of the reglamented PM, and the parameters of ambient conditions. However, the major difficulty in using these systems is the manual input of information in situation of the equipment ambient and operating conditions instability.
The actual cost of such total management substantially exceeds the calculated value and creates an illusion of efficiency. In this case, the equipment passportization, which is done by commissioning consultants and the company’s specialists, is possible; however, keeping such data base up-to-date at an enterprise that has tens of thousands units of various equipment is impossible. This is proven by the numerous articles, published in the press, and by customers’ feedback. The implementation of the PM method on such software products is possible only in small enterprises with simple configuration of process equipment. These software makes data input to the system labour-consuming and subjective that becomes the reason for the situation when more than 70% of the companies consider the results of the products’ implementation as unsuccessful, because this approach to PM does not solve their major problems: the unpredictability of equipment faults, low level of reliability of the process, and considerable losses due to shutdowns while its working condition is being restored, high maintenance and repair costs due to inefficient use of the equipment’s existing resources, high administrative costs of data input and processing.
In order to provide efficient asset management to the Customers, DYNAMICS SPC offers absolutely new unique solution Compacs Asset Management™ (САМ™), which is based on objective, relevant and timely information about the equipment condition provided by the monitoring systems COMPACS®, integrated into the single diagnostic network of the enterprise Compacs-Net®. All the above mentioned systems form the automated control system of safe resource-saving equipment operation SMSRTM™ COMPACS®.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. Condition-based maintenance of machinery by ACS SMSRTM COMPACS // Industrial Automation ("Avtomatizatsiya v promishlennosty"). - 2012. - №9. - pp.12-17
The paper presents broad-scale research held by means of the COMPACS® systems of automated diagnostics and real-time condition monitoring that have been implemented on considerable amount of machinery equipment at a number of enterprises in the Russian Federation.
As a result of this research, a knowledge base of vibration parameter trends has been compiled. It reveals regularities between the type of vibration parameter measurement and the degradation of unit condition. The mathematical model of a vibration parameter trend has been confirmed experimentally, and it states an exponential growth of the vibration parameter trend at the stage of extremely gross wear.
In addition, the statistical properties of the vibration parameter trends have been researched. It has been established that generally the values of vibration parameters and their growth rates are subject to the Weibull-Gnedenko distribution.
The paper presents the developed classification of vibration parameter trends and other diagnostic features that can be measured by the Real-time condition monitoring (RTCM) systems.
Trends that have low, middle and high-speed growth rates have been discovered as well as the trends of monotonous, exponential, alternate and multimodal character. The trends that are characterized by high and low dispersion have been sorted out. Each trend type reflects different defects developing in equipment and degree of danger of these defects.
This data allowed us to calculate the norms of vibration parameters and their growth rate for centrifugal pumps and compressors. The obtained results are the base of some Russian State Standards relating to condition monitoring of equipment at hazardous industries.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. Classification of vibration parameters trends for RTCM // The Eighth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies (CM-2011/MFPT-2011)
Low observability of hidden destruction processes of production facilities condition caused by wear and wrong actions taken by the maintenance personnel is a fundamental reason of hazardous production facilities operational problems. The analysis of reliability of technological units of modern refinery and petrochemical complexes shows that more than ¾ of failures are machinery unit failures, high concentration of which often appears as a reason of accidents and production faults which cause unit downtime and reduce coefficients of technical use and readiness.
In order to fix this problem it is necessary to provide observability and assessment of unit condition during the manufacture and acceptance at the consumer plants, during repair in special departments of enterprises, during the assembly of units and their operation. The observability of failure development requires constant diagnostics with an automatic delivery of objective results independently from the will of executive personnel to the personnel responsible for the machinery operation. The condition diagnostic and monitoring system should reveal the failures and provide supervision for their development and timely warn the personnel about the necessity of machinery decommissioning for repair or its emergency shutdown.
The article reviews the current state standards of the Russian Federation, and the standards of the professional public organizations developed by the authors. These standards define the basic requirements for condition monitoring of the equipment at hazardous production facilities which can underlie the transition to risk monitoring of hazardous production facilities.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Kostyukov An.V., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V. Standards in the field of condition monitoring and diagnostics of hazardous production facilities // Safety of industry labor. - 2012. - № 7. - pp. 30-36
The burst out economic crisis, mainly caused by non-objective assessment of real processes undergoing in global economy, points out the urgency of development and implementation of systems for economic condition monitoring in all economic braches. The development of such system allows to carry out an objective assessment of real processes undergoing at enterprises and timely inform concerned parties (management, consumers, shareholders, suppliers) about their current efficiency. In case of condition worsening it points out the main factors having harmful influence on the economy. Consequently, the task of provision of guaranteed production safety level and getting the planned results with minimum expenses is very urgent for Refinery and Petrochemical companies.
Efficiency of Refineries and Petrochemical companies mostly determined by value of material and human resource expenses for the machinery repair and losses due to accidents and downtime. Machinery wear rates are significantly determined by the adequacy of production and maintenance personnel work.
On the modern stage of effective management of machinery condition monitoring, we developed a new product - Compacs Asset Management (САМ™), which works on the bases of the COMPACS® system data and allows to make reports on the machinery operation for any time period, calculate efficiency index of technological complex machinery operation management in real time (САМ™ Index), and to make the process of decommissioning for repair automatic by means of the COMPACS® system data integration into the TORO-module of the enterprise management system (ERP, ЕАМ).
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. From monitoring systems to safe resource-saving operation of machinery. Results of implementation for 20 years // Council of Chief Mechanics. - 2012. - p.67-74
To ensure the reliability of production it is necessary to be acquainted with technical condition of operated equipment in any time, to know exactly the assemblies with critical technical condition and to assume the measures in time to prevent emergency situations. Production output of petrochemical enterprises makes comprehensive technological process, which includes a few hundred units of technological equipment. Failure of any elements operation in the process flow can lead not just to quality or production volume decrease, but to emergency breakage.
Prediction of such failures can be carried out just in the case of comprehensive monitoring of a whole unit, including monitoring of dynamic equipment (pumps, compressors) and static equipment (columns, reactors, reservoirs, furnaces).
The COMPACS® system uses widespread methods of non-destructive testing: vibration, acoustic emission, thermal, electrical, vortex-current, acoustic, optical, and, in automatic mode, carries out the assessment of machinery equipment technical condition, and so ensuring displaying current technical condition by color pictogram, gives warning to the personal with speech transaction and recommendations for the nearest urgent actions, which have to be carried out to ensure equipment operation without breakdowns. Usage of these methods together, not separately, allows to control any equipment.
Machinery equipment with the stationary system COMPACS® allowed to eliminate breakdowns and exclude "sudden" failures, occurred in the places, where the nucleation and development of the malfunctions up to its critical level can`t be traced and, as a result, causes an emergency situation.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. System for comprehensive condition monitoring of equipment of hazardous production facilities – ways and technologies of realization // Kompleksnaya bezopasnost (Complex safety). - 2012. - pp. 45-47
The paper is devoted to the current development and prospect development of modern methods and means of condition monitoring and diagnostics of reciprocating compressors in hazardous industries. The analysis of well-known monitoring systems enables determination of points for installing sensors in compressors and their assemblies including the controlled assemblies. The principles of condition control presented in monitoring systems have been studied. Technology of condition monitoring systems was examined.
The most systems receive diagnostic signals by means of stationary systems called on-line monitoring systems, in which equipment condition is estimated at the moment of signal receipt according to the measured parameter value without analyzing the causes of its change. In addition, the lack of automatic expert systems of diagnostics and lengthy diagnostic period exceeding the time of defect development testify that the examined on-line monitoring systems are parameter monitoring systems.
Methodology, implementation technology and principles of construction of real-time condition monitoring systems have been analyzed. The methodology of real-time condition monitoring and diagnosing is based on measurement of parameters of indirect processes (vibroacoustic oscillation) that requires installation of 5 sensors or less in a cylinder. The measurement of direct structure and thermodynamic parameters is provided as well.
The condition monitoring system is based on algorithms of real-time decision-making expert system with automatic detection (i.e. diagnostics during measurement of diagnostic signals) of more than 23 malfunctions of compressor assemblies and a hazard degree. The system also provides personnel with the instructions on compensatory control. Scientifically grounded diagnostic period enables reduction of static and dynamic errors by 5% that enables condition monitoring of the most significant equipment and overall production complex.
Naumenko A.P. Modern methods and means of on-line monitoring of parameters and real-time health monitoring of piston machines // The Eighth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies (CM-2011/MFPT-2011)
One of the types of high-risk machinery of oil-and-gas facilities is rotor units: pumps, compressors, separators with wide range of power, pressure, speed, costs, working environments, temperatures and operational resources. Failures and accidents of such machinery can be connected with considerable economic losses and possibilities of severe emergencies.
In order to ensure and increase the resource and safety of rotor machinery for the last twenty years the member-companies of Scientific and Production Unit "RISKOM" were developing methods and systems:
prompt discrete condition diagnostics of the equipment according to the requirements of normative-technical documentation;
continuous condition diagnostics of supporting elements by the common criteria and vibration activity parameters;
continuous and discrete monitoring of rotor units condition based on the results of the current diagnostics and forecast of dangerous conditions (accidents, failures).
These developments allowed for the first time to shape and begin the implementation of a new stage – risk monitoring of rotor units for petrochemical industry. Its methodological nature is the following: by the current condition diagnostic and monitoring data there are quantitative evaluation of accident risk occurrence rates, growth of economic expenses and risks caused by the equipment degradation, reduction of safe run-to failure operation and growth of expenses for diagnostics, monitoring, and reasoning of safe residual life prolonging.
Makhutov N.A., Kostyukov V.N., Leshchenko V.V., Kostyukov A.V. Developing and realization of condition monitoring for rotor systems in oil-and-gas industry // Kompleksnaya bezopasnost (Complex safety). - 2012. - p. 35
Operation of motors in unsatisfactory technical condition leads to financial losses, connected with unpredictable equipment breakdown and caused by this violation of technological process. And also, it leads to considerable electric energy expenditure, caused by an increased current consumption.
In some cases, the diagnostics by the current or consumption capacity, perhaps, is the only one method of non-dismountable diagnostics of electric equipment. Such problem occurs during the diagnostics of air coolers and wind-powered generators. Such facilities have restricted access in terms of vibration sensors mounting, at the same time the mounting of current consumption sensors and control of consumed and outputted electric power do not involve any difficulties.
Spectrum-current analysis is the procedure of monitoring of current and voltage signals on motor terminals and their further analysis aimed at detection of electric and mechanical malfunctions (defects) of electric motors.
Boychenko S.N., Tkachenko A.A. Research of dependence of current consumption parameters of electric motor on its health // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2012. - pp. 199-200
Operation of electric motors in unacceptable condition leads to material loses connected with unpredictable failure of the equipment and technological process breakdown produced by this failure, and also considerable expenditures of electrical energy, caused by increased power consumption.
One of these methods is based on that fact that the auxiliary machine systems of each section are independent in terms of ranked measured values. It allows to mark out sections with current references deviation from train`s average values, thereby it points out the section with developing malfunction in the supporting machine system.
It is perspective to develop method for condition diagnostics of electric trains based on spectral analysis of consumption/ generated current. This analysis allows to specify the condition of machine`s different elements and detect specific types of malfunctions.
Physical principle lying in the basis of this method is that any disturbance in the operation of electric and mechanical parts of the machine leads to change of magnetic flux in air gap and, consequently, to a change of a momentary electric current value. Accordingly, the presence of particular frequencies of fixed value in a current of a spectrum of three-phase feed system of auxiliary machines testifies the development of particular malfunctions of a unit.
Thus, for the continuous monitoring of auxiliary machine system it is enough to install three current sensors to the corresponded line conductors of transformation generator.
Tsurpal A.E. Selection of method for diagnostics of auxiliary machine system of electric trains // Nauka, obrazovanie, biznes (Science, education, business). - 2012. - pp. 202-205