Technology for real-time diagnostics and monitoring of piston machines is based on collection and processing of data which are to provide detection of defects and malfunctions of piston machines with specified detalization and accuracy, as well as their danger rates.
The technology implementation comprises usage of vibration-acoustic signal structure models in case of occurrence of defects and failures of assemblies and details of piston machines, combination of diagnostic features of failures and signal parameters in case of failure occurrence, ways of vibration-acoustic signal processing and evaluation system for the vibration-acoustic signal parameters.
One of the practical ways of the technology implementation and solutions of piston machines diagnostic and monitoring tasks is introduction of the given solutions which form a database connecting diagnostic features of failures and condition of piston machines’ details into functioning algorithms of the diagnostic and monitoring system COMPACS®.
The presented methodology of monitoring and diagnostics based on measuring the parameters of secondary processes (vibration-acoustic oscillations) allows to implement the algorithms of the real-time expert system for decision-making with automatic detection (diagnosing in time with diagnostic signals’ change) of more than 20 malfunctions of assemblies, such as piston compressors of hazardous production facilities, their danger rates and issuing prescriptions to the personnel for the required maintenance actions.
Naumenko A.P. Basic principles of technology for real-time diagnostics and monitoring of piston machines // XX Russian scientific conference on NDT and technical diagnostics: proceedings – Moscow: Spectr Editorial, 2014. – p.358-362.
The paper dwells upon the experience of operating condition monitoring systems for hazardous production facilities of power, mining, metallurgy and transport industries.
The paper shows the difference between the machinery parameter monitoring systems and condition monitoring systems. Parameter monitoring systems measure parameters of physical processes, however, without determining the causes of their change. Condition monitoring systems not only determine the change of physical parameters, but also the causes of their changes.
Those systems use algorithms of a real-time automatic decision-making expert system with an automatic machinery malfunction diagnosing, automatically show the personnel which actions should be made in order to eliminate the malfunctions.
Sometimes such systems in Russia are called “vibration monitoring systems”. The term “real-time” when referring to condition monitoring means that the speed of determining parameter measuring, condition evaluation, and depiction of the diagnostic results have to be adjusted to the speed of the machine’s degradation and exceed it by a few times in order to eliminate outliners and increase reliability of the diagnosis, along with creation of time reserve for making a management decision and carrying out all necessary actions.
Technical and economic efficiency indicators for the monitoring systems application are given in the paper.
Kostyukov V.N. Vibration monitoring of production and transport facilities // XX Russian scientific conference on NDT and technical diagnostics: proceedings – Moscow: Spectr Editorial, 2014. – p.357-358.
EMU-train depots widely use the COMPACS®-EXPRESS vibration acoustic diagnostics systems, designed for condition evaluation of WMU of motor-driven rolling stock during scheduled maintenance and repair works.
The diagnostics is aimed at increasing reliability and resource of technical systems. The main diagnostic task is to evaluate the condition of units and assemblies and classify it as good or faulty. That is closely connected with the risk of false alarm or defect skipping. The present work is devoted to reliability increase of rotary units’ condition diagnostics with simultaneous decrease of complexity of its usage.
An analysis of geometrical parameters of a bearing assembly resulted in dependency of vibration level from rotation frequency and defect’s size. According to the dependency, the vibration signal amplitude rate is proportional to the bearing rotation frequency and the defect’s size. Using the COMPACS®-EXPRESS systems the dependency proved valid. A diagnostic error connected with false alarm or defect skipping probability can be eliminated by using an ambiguity area limited by the highest and the lowest critical values.
The paper considers the developed approach to reduce the diagnostic error by using an ambiguity area and conducting an additional independent testing. Thus, using an ambiguity area in condition evaluation together with two independent tests, increasing complexity of its usage not more than by 2, substantially increases the reliability of rotary units condition diagnostics.
Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V., Zaytsev A.V. Reliability increase of rotary units’ vibration analysis // XX Russian scientific conference on NDT and technical diagnostics: proceedings – Moscow: Spectr Editorial, 2014. – p.355-357.
Modern production facilities equipment operation and transport complex are unthinkable without the use of health monitoring systems. Currently, the production and transport facilities of the complex are distinguished by the degree of impact on the country’s security, economy and ecology: objects of technical regulation, hazardous production facilities, critical facilities, strategic facilities.
It is clear that various classes of systems should be used for these objects health monitoring. Principles of monitoring construction documented in the literature are reflected in the standards. Monitoring systems should provide information on the equipment (monitoring object) status in the required quantity and quality to provide observability of its technical state. Observation systems results should advance to take control actions, which provide the required stability margin processing facility, quality of its operation, create a necessary supply of technological, environmental and economic safety. These systems form the basis of automated control systems for the safe resource-saving operation of equipment in real time within the whole enterprise.
Risk decisions are determined by monitoring errors - static, dynamic, and those due to the influence of human factor. A significant effect of a static error detection on the magnitude of a dynamic error detection and of the failure omission risk due to the monitoring system has been shown. An equation of the static and dynamic errors relation, invariant to the nature of these processes and diagnostic features has been obtained.
There have been obtained numerical estimates of the dynamic error increase for linear and exponential trends of technical state degradation in the objects, invariant to their nature. Ways of improving the monitoring systems for malfunctions in objects of different responsibility depends on the basis of a modernized classification criterion.
Makhutov N. A., Technogenic safety: diagnostics and monitoring of potentially dangerous equipment and its operation risks// N. A. Makhutov, M. M. Gadenin, Digest: Federal
reference book, Vol. 26, Moscow, SP "Center of Strategic Partnership", 2012. – 496 p. pp. 307-314.
Kostyukov V. N., Monitoring of condition and operation risks of the equipment in real time as a basis of industrial safety// V. N. Kostyukov, N. A. Makhutov, A.V. Kostyukov. Digest: Federal reference book, Vol. 26, Moscow, SP "Center of Strategic Partnership", 2012. – 496 p. pp. 321-326.
Kostyukov V. N, Boychenko S. N, Kostyukov Al. V., Automated control systems for safe money-saving operation of equipment at refining and petrochemical plants (SMSRTM – COMPACS®), Moscow, Mashinostroenie, ISBN: 5-217-02971-4, 1999, 163 p.
Kostyukov A.V., Kostyukov V. N., Improving the operational efficiency of enterprises, based on real-time monitoring, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 2009, 192 p.
Kostyukov V. N., Naumenko A.P., Bases of vibroacoustic diagnostics and monitoring of machinery: tutorial. Recommended by EMO of higher education institutions of the Russian Federation for students of higher education institutions studying in the field 200100 – "Instrument making". Omsk, OmSTU, 2011, 360 p.
Kostyukov V. N., Condition monitoring of the equipment in real-time technology of safe maintenance of the XXI century, Тhe 5th International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies CM 2008/MFPT 2008/ 15-18 July, 2008, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-31-4, 2008, pp 785-793.
Kostyukov V. N, Real-Time Condition Monitoring of Machinery, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies,
CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp. 1161-1170.
Boychenko S. N., Kostyukov V. N., Equipment diagnostic expert system, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention
Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp. 1132-1135.
Kostyukov An. V., Increase of safety and operating efficiency of continuous production cycle enterprises based on real-time comprehensive condition monitoring of equipment, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp. 1164-1179.
Kostyukov V. N., Real-time Condition Monitoring of Equipment, The 7th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies,
CM 2010/MFPT2010/ 22-24 June, 2010, Stratford-upon-Avon, England, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-33-8, 2010, Paper 236, 8 p.
Kostyukov V. N., Real-time Condition Monitoring of machinery by the recurrent selection of the noise and periodic components of vibration, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 205, 13 p.
Kostyukov Al. V., Kostyukov V. N., Classification of vibration parameters trends for RTCM, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure
Prevention Technologies, CM2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 217, 10 p.
Naumenko A. P., Modern methods and means of on-line monitoring of parameters and realtime health monitoring of piston machines, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 209, 13 p.
Kostyukov V. N., Real-Time Condition Monitoring of gear pumps by the recurrent selection of the noise and periodic components of vibration, The 9th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2012/MFPT2012/ 12-14 June, 2012, London, England, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2012, Paper 259, 11 p.
Kostyukov V. N., Real-time Health Monitoring Systems of Machinery, The 10th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention
Technologies, CM 2013/MFPT2013/ 18-20 June, 2013, Krakov, Poland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-37-6, 2013, Paper 106, 10 p.
Kostyukov V. N., Naumenko A. P., Kostyukov An. V., Boychenko S. N., Kostyukov Al. V., Standards in the field of technical condition of hazardous facilities equipment, Industrial safety, Moscow, 2012, 7, pp. 30-36.
GOST R 53563-2010, Condition Control and Equipment Diagnostics. Condition Monitoring of Hazardous Production Equipment. The Order of the Organization, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
GOST R 53564-2010, Condition Control and Equipment Diagnostics. Condition Monitoring of Hazardous Production Equipment. Requirements to Monitoring Systems, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
GOST R 53565-2010, Condition Control and Equipment Diagnostics. Condition Monitoring of Hazardous Production Equipment. Vibration of Centrifugal Pumping and Compressor Units, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
Malov E. A., Bronfin I. B., Dolgopyatov V. N., Kostyukov V. N., Boychenko S. N., Implementation of COMPACS® systems – providing of safe operation at the plants with continuous production cycle, Industrial safety, Moscow, 1994, 8, pp. 19-22.
Kostyukov V. N., Boychenko S. N., Naumenko A. P., Tarasov E. V., Comprehensive monitoring of hazardous production facilities, Control. Diagnostics, Moscow, 2008, 12, pp.
Kostyukov V.N. Real-time health monitoring systems of machinery - risk assessment // Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies (СМ/MFPT 2014)
In terms of an operational process of rail-tracked rolling stock, the most important assemblies, liable to sudden failures, are limiting the rolling stock in general. Such assemblies include ones of electric and mechanical equipment which failures cannot be eliminated during operation.
The most efficient methods of detecting failures of rotary mechanical equipment is heating and vibration-acoustics, however, heating method allows barely state the fact of beginning of an assembly’s destruction, or find defects on a late stage of their development, as long as the vibration-acoustic method of NDT allows to detect both nucleating and developed defects.
Big amount of interferences and high noise level accompanying interaction of a wheel and a rail track has formed a common opinion on provision objective vibration acoustic condition diagnostics of rolling stock’s rotary machinery condition in operation being hard or, sometimes, impossible to achieve.
The research is aimed at providing the most informative, in terms of vibration-acoustic diagnostics, frequency range of a vibration signal, in order to develop an expert system and provide condition monitoring of a rail-tracked rolling stock.
Kostyukov Al.V., Tsurpal A.E., Basakin V.V. Research on vibration activity of assemblies in rail-tracked rolling stock’s mechanical parts // XX Russian scientific conference on NDT and technical diagnostics: proceedings – Moscow: Spectr Editorial, 2014. – p.353-355.
Today, the most common method to estimate centrifugal pump unit condition is vibration analysis which analyze vibration signals on the unit’s surface. In that case spectral analysis of signals is used, in which harmonic components of the spectrum are placed in correspondence with particular defects. However, usage of spectrum analysis requires precise information on the type and construction of the unit, its operation practice which might be imprecise or even absent. That might lead to condition estimation errors. Thus, a task of investigating new diagnostic methods using algorithms invariant to type and construction of the unit is urgent.
The paper considers using in diagnostics of centrifugal pump unit one of non-linear dynamic methods - fractal dimension, in which Hurst exponent of fractal dimension is used as a diagnostic feature. The main advantage of the feature is invariance to the level of analyzed signal, and, consequently, independency of power and dimension characteristics of the unit.
The paper reveals the results of researches on using the Hurst exponent of fractal dimension for determining unit’s cavitation carries out by means of the COMPACS®-RPG bench system for pump units testing. It is shown that the exponent’s response is accurate, and, in some cases, even more accurate than the main cavitation spectral feature – level of blade harmonics.
Thus, usage of the Hurst exponent of fractal dimension allows to improve reliability of output from an expert system for pump units condition diagnostic.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Pavlenkov D.V. Usage of fractal dimension coefficient for vibration analysis of centrifugal pump units’ condition // XX Russian scientific conference on NDT and technical diagnostics: proceedings – Moscow: Spectr Editorial, 2014. – p.352-353.
Non-destructive testing and technical diagnostics of columns, reactors and tanks of refinery and petrochemical productions during operation on production conditions is an urgent task, which solution provides reliability and safety of explosive and flammable productions.
The computer monitoring and automatic diagnostics systems COMPACS® apply almost all methods of non-destructive testing: vibration, acoustic emission, heat, electric, eddy-current, acoustic, optical.
The principles of the system’s structure allow to provide flexibility and multipurposeness of the applied NDT methods. In that case the data are collected by various-type sensors, and an automatic expert system analyzes the facility’s condition.
Today, DYNAMICS SPC in collaboration with «FORC — Photonics» has solved the task on control provision by applying a fiber-optic technology for non-destructive testing purposes and technical diagnostics of columns and tanks at refinery and petrochemical production facilities in operation.
The paper considers application of fiber-optic technology in the COMPACS® systems in order to provide NDT and technical diagnostics of columns and tanks at refinery and petrochemical production facilities in operation.
Boychenko S.N., Tarasov E.V., Zarenbin A.V., Simonov M.A. Fiber-optic systems for temperature and strains monitoring // XX Russian scientific conference on NDT and technical diagnostics: proceedings – Moscow: Spectr Editorial, 2014. – p.247-248.
The prime means of machinery operability support is preventive maintenance. The intervals between maintenance/repairs as well as their size and contents depend on the statistical data. That method does not consider special features of the particular assembly, its actual operation conditions, such as stochastic loads on the machines, or operation procedure, etc. A machinery maintenance system based on such approach has several disadvantages.
Switching from preventive maintenance to condition-based maintenance allows considerably (in a few times) increase run-to-failure period and decrease operational costs. The real-time condition monitoring of machines and their parts ensures an objective assessment of condition during operation. The second component of the innovative technology for maintenance, repair, run-to-failure growth and reduction of cost required for a demanded condition support is detection of faulty parts of the machine before repair and an accurate assessment of their condition after the repair.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Kostyukov Al.V., Boychenko S.N. Real-time condition monitoring – innovative technology of maintenance and repair production // Territoriya NDT (NDT Territory). - 2014. - №1. - p.66-69.
Vibration analysis provides a comprehensive assessment of a piston machine’s condition by outer vibration of its casing, and makes an effective instrument for investigating dynamic processes’ quality during assembling, production, defects detection and their critical growth during operation. The highest efficiency rate can be reached by ensuring the condition monitoring of not only a piston machine, but all conjugated mechanisms and attached assemblies.
Internal combustion motors are the most important types of piston machines for which vibration-acoustic diagnostics allows to provide safe accident-free operation with the longest possible operating life.
A DMS is a system (or machine) which product is current information on the condition of the machinery and possible danger, with required commentary (prognosis of residual operating life, prompting on the nearest urgent actions to be made, etc.) and a set risk level.
Kostyukov V.N. Reliability increase of piston machines equipped with condition diagnostic and monitoring system (DMS) // Machine manufacturing. Encyclopedia. - Moscow: Mashinostroenie. Dvigateli vnutrennego sgoraniya. - 2013. - Vol. IV-14. – Annex, par.4. - p.775-781
Internal combustion motors are multifactor source of powerful vibration-acoustic signals. The motor’s vibrations are caused by unevenly rotating masses – inertia of reciprocating masses, centrifugal inertia and its moments, gas dynamic processes – power of gas pressure, inlet/outlet gas flow, fuel injection, and, also, impact and friction between elements and details of assemblies and mechanisms.