To make an efficient evaluation of wheel-motor unit assembly bearings condition - the research on factors influencing the vibration level is required.
For such a research there was developed a mathematical model connecting a rolling bearing vibration signal level with linear dimensions of a defect and shaft rotation frequency, which shows that the vibration amplitude is proportional to the rotation frequency, linear dimensions of a defect and loading on the bearing.
Vibration level-vs-defect size curves are built.
Thus, creating systems for condition diagnostics and monitoring of EMU-train bearing assemblies, in order to increase the reliability of diagnostics it is important to consider the influence of the rotation frequency and characteristics of the defect mode at different speed rates.
Kostyukov V.N., Zaytsev A.V., Tsurpal A.E., Basakin V.V. Research on EMU-train rolling bearing defect influence on vibration parameters values // Increase of traction and energy efficiency and reliability of electric rolling stock: interuniversity special scientific paper volume – Omsk: OmSTU, 2013. - pp.50-53
Operating experience of machinery health monitoring systems for hazardous production facilities of energy complex, mining and metallurgical industry enterprises has been considered. The difference between condition monitoring and health monitoring systems has been shown.
Condition monitoring systems measure the physical processes parameters, though they do not determine the reasons for their change. Health monitoring systems determine not only the monitoring object’s technical state, but the reasons for its change, as well. These systems use the expert system algorithms for real-time decision-making support with an automatic diagnostics of machinery units’ failures. Simultaneously, the systems automatically detect the failures severity and point out actions the staff should take to solve the problem.
Sometimes in Russia such systems are called the diagnostic monitoring systems. Those, as a rule, are the 1st class-systems, according to GOST R 53564 . The term “real time”, when it comes to condition monitoring, means that the determining the parameters measurement rate, as well as the object condition identification and the diagnostics results displaying, should be adjusted with its degradation rate and even several times outpacing, it in order to eliminate surges and increase the diagnosis accuracy, thus, creating the leeway for management decisions making and compensatory measures execution.
The technical and economic indexes of monitoring systems application effectiveness have been provided in the article.
V. N. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, Al. V. Kostyukov, ‘Automated control systems for safe resource-saving operation of equipment at refining and petrochemical plants (ACS SRSTM™ COMPACS®)’, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, ISBN: 5-217-02971-4, 1999, 163 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Monitoring of Production Safety’, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, ISBN: 5-217-03151-4, 2002, 212 p.
An. V. Kostyukov, V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Increase of operational efficiency of enterprises based on real-time monitoring’, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 2009, 192 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Condition monitoring of the equipment in real-time technology of safe-save maintenance of the XXI century’, Тhe 5th International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies CM 2008/MFPT 2008/ 15-18 July, 2008, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-31-4, 2008, pp 785-793.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-Time Condition Monitoring of Machinery’, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp 1161-1170.
S. N. Boichenko, V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Equipment diagnostic expert system’, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp 1132-1135.
An. V. Kostyukov, ‘Increase of safety and operating efficiency of continuous production cycle enterprises based on real-time comprehensive condition monitoring of equipment’, The 6th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2009/MFPT2009/ 23-25 June, 2009, Dublin, Ireland, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., 2009, pp 1164-1179.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-time Condition Monitoring of Equipment’, The 7th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2010/MFPT2010/ 22-24 June, 2010, Stratford-upon-Avon, England, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-33-8, 2010, Paper 236, 8 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-time Condition Monitoring of machinery by the recurrent selection of the noise and periodic components of vibration’, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 205, 13 p.
Al. V. Kostyukov, V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Classification of vibration parameters trends for RTCM’, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 217, 10 p.
A. P. Naumenko, ‘Modern methods and means of on-line monitoring of parameters and real-time health monitoring of piston machines’, The 8th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM2011/MFPT2011/ 20-22 June, 2011, Cardiff, Wales, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2011, Paper 209, 13 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, ‘Real-Time Condition Monitoring of gear pumps by the recurrent selection of the noise and periodic components of vibration’, The 9th International Conference on Condition Monitoring & Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, CM 2012/MFPT2012/ 12-14 June, 2012, London, England, BINDT & Coxmoor Publishing Co., ISBN: 978-1-901892-36-9, 2012, Paper 259, 11 p.
V. N. Kostyukov, A. P. Naumenko, An. V. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, Al. V. Kostyukov, ‘Standards in the field of technical condition of hazardous facilities equipment’, Industrial safety, Moscow, 2012, 7, pp 30-36.
GOST R 53563-2009. ‘Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Organizational procedures‘, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
GOST R 53564-2009. ‘Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Requirements for monitoring systems’, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
GOST R 53565-2009. ‘Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Hazardous equipment monitoring. Vibration generated by rotodynamic pump and compressor units’, Moscow, STANDARTINFORM, 2010.
E. A. Malov, I. B. Bronfin, V. N. Dolgopyatov, V. N. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, ‘Implementation of the COMPACS® systems – providing of safe operation at the plants with continuous production cycle’, Industrial safety, Moscow, 1994, 8, pp 19-22.
V. N. Kostyukov, S. N. Boichenko, A. P. Naumenko, E. V. Tarasov, ‘Comprehensive monitoring of hazardous production facilities’, Control. Diagnostics, Moscow, 2008, 12, pp 8-18.
Kostyukov V.N. Real-Time Health Monitoring Systems of Machinery // X International Conference Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies - СМ/MFPT 2013
DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center offers a brand new level of environmentally friendly resource-saving and safe operation of machinery and processes on the basis of real-time computer condition monitoring.
The basis of the technology is the COMPACS® computer system for condition monitoring of machinery - the DYNAMICS’ very own development. The company’s experts brought to life 40 years of experience in design and implementation of vibration analysis systems and latest achievements among global scientific and technical ideas in the form of a new proprietary product, which has no equals anywhere in the world.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov An.V. Environmentally friendly systems and technologies of safe resource-saving operation of machinery on the basis of real-time computer condition monitoring // Nota Bene. Osoboe vnimanie, 2013. - №5. - pp.28-29
The methods of condition diagnostics of the auto braking system of multiple units of a motor driven-rolling stock given in the article provides the most accurate detection of malfunctions, allowing to find leakage in any assembly of an auto-braking system, including brake cylinders, and also is highly automated and, consequently, prevents the influence of “human factor”.
Due to obtained advantages, the methods increase reliability and depth of the diagnostics, ensure comprehensive diagnostics of all of the sub-systems of auto braking system units, which make full diagnostics possible.
The reached depth and fullness of the diagnostics in conjunction with the smaller time expenses can significantly reduce failure elimination time as well as cost of diagnostics, repair and maintenance of electric trains, it also improves the quality of repair, and as a consequence, contributes to the safety of the railways.
Kostyukov Al.V., Schelkanov A.V. Methods of condition diagnostics of the auto braking system of multiple units of a motor driven-rolling stock // Science, education, business: materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference for scientists, teachers, graduate students, industry and communication professionals devoted to Radio Day. - Omsk, 2013. - pp. 210-216
Being one of the most important systems, the system of auxiliary machines provides normal functioning of all electric train systems with no exception. To feed auxiliary circuits of DC electric trains one uses a transverter. As a source of compressed air piston compressors are used, and since 2010 a screw compressor package is also used for this purpose. Besides, the system of auxiliary machines includes interior lighting and climate control unit, control and excitation transformers.
The aim of the method development is increasing of operational reliability of auxiliary circuits machinery of motor-driven rolling stock, as well as timely detection and elimination of defects on their initial stage by means of continuous condition monitoring of machinery.
The main advantage of the described above diagnostic method in appliance to the system of auxiliary machines of electric trains is wide coverage of diagnosed auxiliary machines. At the same time, the installation of only 3 current sensors on line wires of transverter generator feeding the system of auxiliary machines system – that’s what makes the method less expensive, simplifies the installation of diagnostic equipment and provides high reliability of the diagnostic system in general.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V., Tsurpal A.E., Ilyushin M.S. The development of diagnostic method for auxiliary circuits of DC electric trains // Science, education, business: materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference for scientists, teachers, graduate students, industry and communication professionals devoted to Radio Day. - Omsk, 2013. - pp. 189-194
To prove the theory on the influence of bearing rotation frequency influence on vibration parameter rates and the influence’s dependency from the bearing condition, the researches were carried out using experimental unit and real bearings.
In order to reach the goal it is necessary to obtain and analyze dependencies of vibration parameters from rotation frequency both for intact and obviously defected bearings.
The subjects of the research were the following: intact bearings, bearings with physically simulated defects of inner and outer races, and a bearing with rolling body defect which formed during its continuous operation.
From the results of the experiments one can conclude that nature of dependency of vibration displacement rates from rotation frequency of the bearing is considerably influenced by its condition.
Zaitsev A.V., Basakin V.V., Teterin A.O. Research on dependency of bearing vibration parameters on the rotation frequency // Science, education, business: materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference for scientists, teachers, graduate students, industry and communication professionals devoted to Radio Day. - Omsk, 2013. - pp.109-112
Large amount of various tools for diagnostics and control cannot guarantee the industrial and maintenance enterprises a good-quality assessment of machinery condition. As a rule, these tools are not unified and lacking of a single database of controlled parameters and results, as well as claimed metrological characteristics, also, often, the producers provide no maintenance services.
As a result, only one third of an enterprise’s control tools is actually operating. However, one more problem exists: to get some practical effect from the diagnostic and control results they should be available to all management levels.
In order to determine equipment state in technical field a few systems and devices were analyzed, in particular.
The known analogs have one main disadvantage – narrow functionality which cannot provide full diagnostics of EMU-train equipment and leads to considerable effect of human factor on the results of condition assessment.
The specified problems’ solution can be reached through condition monitoring and creation of automated control systems.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Kazarin D.V., Schelkanov A.V. Automatic control system for safe resource-saving operation and repair of rolling stock equipment at suburban passenger train // Bulletin of The Institute of Natural Monopolies Research: Railway Equipment magazine. - 2013. - №1. - pp.62-66.
Plain bearings are one of the most critical assemblies. Their faults are accompanied with local overheating, babbit hardening on the shaft, shaft neck score, shaft seizure. The repair is quite laboursome and requires large time consumptions. To avoid expensive and continuous repairs it is necessary to control the assembly’s quality both in operation and repair/maintenance.
The diagnostic of the assembly in operation by vibration-diagnostic methods can be carried out by, for instance, the stationary system COMPACS® or the portable system Compacs®-micro™.
Repair or maintenance usually contains checking of an assembly’s geometrics, such as out-of-roundness, clearances, etc. However, the geometrics of assembly parts cannot be complete criteria for quality assessment, since it is not allowing to detect hidden defects. Among the most “dangerous” details are plain bearing liners. The most common ones – are double-layered plain bearing liners, which consists of a firm solid shell and anti-friction lining.
The statistics shows, that among the liner’s defects the most often are: lamination (separation of shell and lining layers) and unevenness (air bubbles and slag shots). The danger from such defects is caused by the possibility of sudden breakdown of defected liner and consequently fast destruction of the assembly. In order to detect the defects a bench ultrasonic control system for plain half bearings COMPACS®-USD was developed.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Schelkanov A.V. Bench ultrasonic control system for plain bearing liners COMPACS-USD // Assembly in mechanical engineering, instrument making. - 2013. - №1. - pp.26-28.
For more than 20 years DYNAMICS SPC is developing and implementing the technology of safe resource-saving operation of machinery ACS COMPACS®, based on complex systems of real-time condition monitoring – COMPACS®, which includes automatic expert decision-making system.
The COMPACS® system carry out real-time condition monitoring of equipment, automatically diagnosis the object and checks whether the prescriptions are fulfilled with no interference of diagnostic specialists. Therefore, the influence of human factor is minimized to personnel’s sluggishness or lack of spare parts.
The implementation of automatic control system for safe resource-saving operation of machinery COMPACS® ensures enterprises with nature-friendly technology of economically-efficient safety which eliminates accidents, increases run-to-failure periods, provides operation and repair of technological complexes machinery based on its actual condition in real-time.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov An.V., Sinitsyn A.A. Automatic control systems for safe resource-saving operation on the basis of real-time condition monitoring // Machinery operation problems and ways of increasing the reliability of reforming, hydrotreating and hydrocracking units: discus. mater. - Moscow: "Scientific and Technical Center under the Council of Chief Mechanics", 2013. - pp.79-85.
Increased number of incidents and emergencies on railway transport make us become seriously aware of handling the problem of control and condition monitoring of equipment of all infrastructural assets at all life-cycle phases. It is widely known that the lack of objective quality control of manufacturing and repair of equipment at the stages of production and maintenance and the lack of observability of the real condition degradation processes during the operation keep us from taking reasonable, both economically and technically effective actions for maintaining a high equipment reliability level promptly.
Availability of a big number of various monitoring and control tools at the disposal of manufacturing and service enterprises is no guarantee for high quality equipment condition assessment. These tools are not universalized in general, there is no consolidated base of monitored parameters and testing results, the required metrological performance is not maintained, support service are frequently non-provide. As a result, is that only about one third of technical control means are available in the enterprises' arsenal on-stream. However, there is another problem, because to get the practical importance for monitoring and testing results there must be observable to all levels of management hierarchy at any time.
Solution of the denoted problems is achieved by the development of condition monitoring and automated control systems .
Summarizing over 20 years experience of monitoring and diagnosing of critical equipment of continuous dangerous productions of petrochemical, iron and steel, and mining industries and the experience of rail transport equipment diagnosing DYNAMICS SPC now actively develops the innovative management engineering of rolling stock equipment condition based on real-time monitoring - automated control system of safe resource-saving operation and maintenance of equipment COMPACS®.
The purpose of the COMPACS® implementation and development is increasing the railway transport safety and providning continuous operation by efficient condition control of rolling stock equipment and infrastructural assets based on uninterrupted automatic real-time condition monitoring.
Kostykov V.N. Monitoring of production. Moscow: Mashinostroyenie, 2002. - 224 p.
Kostykov V.N., Kostykov A.V. Increase of operational efficiency of enterprises based on real-time monitoring. Moscow: Mashinostroyenie, 2009. - 192 p.
Kostykov V.N., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P., Kostykov A.V. Continuous monitoring of motor driven rolling stock // Railway transport. - 2008. - №6. - p. 41-42.
Kostykov V.N., Sizov S.V., Aristov V.P., Kostykov A.V., Kazarin D.V. Automated diagnostics of MDRS electric circuits // Railway transport. - 2010. - №5. - p. 56-58.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Kazarin D.V., Schelkanov A.V. Automated control system of safe resource-saving operation and maintenance of rolling stock equipment of suburban passenger trains // Railway equipment. Special issue Innotrans 2012. - Sept. - Р.101-102