In recent years, the systems of standards containing the term risk have gained popularity in foreign and domestic reference documents, while many industrial enterprises have taken on creating risk-management systems for technogenic safety in order to decrease expenses on Maintenance, Repair And Operating (MRO).
Thus, it is necessary to point out the specific features of the risk management for technogenic safety. Firstly, risk avoidance is impossible, as it would mean the closedown of enterprises with hazardous production facilities. Secondly, to accept the risk is also impossible, since the risk increases together with the complexity and scale of production. Thirdly, transfer the risk to the third party (by means of insurance) is ineffective, as the worst possible consequences of failure inevitably result in losses that cannot be compensated financially. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on risk reduction.
The aim of the article is to present the procedure that allows monitoring the risk of production facilities failures in real time. The specialists of DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center (DYNAMICS SPC) have been developing and perfecting the procedure for the last 20 years. The computer system for accident prevention and condition monitoring COMPACS® created by the Center is introduced at dozens of enterprises with hazardous production facilities in Russia and abroad where it monitors the condition of more than 17000 plants, production facilities and machinery of 1700 different types.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V. Real-time monitoring of machinery failures and operating risks // Industrial risk evaluation and management in industrial safety. Monitoring the risk for complex and unique units. Poligon-presss, 2014. - p. 37-48.
More than 25 years ago the pioneer of Siberian petrochemistry – PO Omsknefteorgsintez, which is now called Gazpromneft – Omsk Refinery, JCS, put its bet on Omsk scientific developments and let one RI scientist to create a unique software-hardware complex providing objective data on the most critical machinery condition in real time to the personnel and management of the enterprise.
Experimental operation of the very first systems has proved their efficiency and irreplaceability for large-scale refinery production. That resulted in further researches and development of the systems, and global novelty of the offered solutions, together with wise technical policy of Omsk refinery has allowed to establish a DYNAMICS Scientific & Production Center (DYNAMICS SPC) under the leadership of Vladimir Nikolayevich Kostyukov in 1991.
Scientists and engineers of the Center created a unique product – the computer monitoring system for accident prevention and condition control – COMPACS®. The system holds a leading position in the world not only by the combination of its characteristic features, but by its implementation scales. The COMPACS® condition monitoring system for accidents prevention was developed for the first time for PO Omsknefteorgsintez, where it became widely spread. Today, more than 20 production facilities of Omsk Refinery are equipped with the COMPACS® system and are operated according to their real-time condition.
Intensive implementation of the piston compressor monitoring systems at hazardous production facilities of refinery and petrochemical enterprises established a problem of standardizing of measured parameters, which are used for condition monitoring of piston compressors. One of the main physical processes applied in monitoring systems is vibration.
Vibration parameter standardizing method uses a deduced form experiments fact: when machines function normally the vibration parameters of some of the machines have lower values than those that can be used as limiting ones.
Today in Russia there are acting standards which allow together with monitoring systems for hazardous production facilities and in compliance with requirements of the 1st class monitoring systems, to ensure that static, dynamic errors and risk of failure of dangerous condition do not exceed 5%.
As a result, for the first time in the world, monitoring systems made in accordance with STO 03-007–11 standard using the developed algorithms of automatic expert system for decision-making allows to carry out condition monitoring of piston compressors of hazardous production facilities and to provide their safe resource-saving operation.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Standardization in diagnostics and monitoring of piston compressors // Territoriya NDT (NDT Territory). - 2014. - №4. - P. 28-33.
Improving techniques for condition assessment of mechanical parts of electric trains in operation is an ongoing challenge.
The paper presents the results of researches aimed at establishment of a range of vibration parameters change for mechanical part of electric trains, in order to provide requirements for the dynamic range of measurement channels when developing an on-board system for vibration analysis and condition monitoring of mechanical parts of electric trains.
Tsurpal A.E., Basakin V.V., Ilyushin M.S. Vibration-activity analysis of mechanical parts of electric trains // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 164-167.
Satisfying operation of a turbo-unit can be reached by elimination of unacceptable values of defects, good alignment of details in hot position, stable position of supports in the turbo-unit, i.e. absence of considerable damages in their base or support shift during the change from cooling or cold condition to hot condition.
The article touches upon operational detection of various defects of big power turbo-units’ shaft lines assembly, made during repair works. Specifications of rotor movements and variable stress in rotor journals, weld joints and half-coupling bolts are shown by the numerical defect modeling. The examples and basic causes of half-coupling bolts operational distortion are revealed. Also, the article shows specifications of automatic diagnosing and quantitative measurement of defect parameters in turbo-unit condition monitoring systems.
Kumenko A.I. Diagnostics of shafting lines assembly in large power turbo-units using shaft sensors // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 161-164.
Higher intensity of suburban railway line transportation and provision of its safety in conditions of simultaneous reduction of operational costs for railway-yard maintenance have even requirements towards reliability level and maintenance quality provided for rolling stock.
Statistically, an electro-pneumatic system and its parts is highly vulnerable to the impact of human factor during maintenance and repair and damageable during operation. It’s about 80% of all damages and at least 75% of all costs for maintenance and repair.
The article presents the results of studies on the development for diagnostics of electro-pneumatic systems, which allows to increase the accuracy by increasing the depth and completeness of the diagnostics.
Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V., Schelkanov A.V. Method for diagnostics of electro-pneumatic systems of electric trains // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 158-161.
Solution for the problem of safe and reliable operation of machines of hazardous petrochemical facilities is directly related to the monitoring of their operational risks.
To monitor risks of hazardous production facilities one need to assess the performance of equipment reliability in real operating conditions, to know the mean time of machinery operation before defect nucleation and occurrence of a dangerous technical condition (emergency).
In addition, the reliability analysis of machinery units of petrochemical facilities shows that dynamic equipment accounts for more than 70% of failures.
Thus, the solution for the most important problems of safe and reliable operation of machines of continuous hazardous productions of petrochemical facilities is to determine the mean time of the machinery operation considering different technical conditions.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Sinitsyn A.A., Tarasov E.V. Reliability assessment of safe operation of petrochemical facilities // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 154-157.
In general case, using a combination of diagnostic features, with each feature characterizing the diagnostic object’s condition with a certain probability, it would be correct to establish a critical rule by which the combination of features would be considered to be related to one of the possible states (diagnoses). In particular case, it is important to distinguish two diagnoses (differential diagnostics or dichotomy), such as “good condition” and “faulty condition”.
Methods of statistics decisions, such as minimal risk method, minimal faulty decision method, minimax method, Neumann-Pearson method, maximum likelihood method allow to choose the critical rule using optimum conditions, such as minimum risk condition, reducing chance of a diagnostic error at a set level of another error.
The paper considers selection of a method for establishing standard values of diagnostic features using a theory of statistic decisions-making. The paper dwells upon calculation of probability of defect skipping and false alarm, as well as failure skipping risk while establishing a standard feature value by various methods of decision-making.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Risk assessment for establishing standard values of diagnostic features // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 150-154.
The paper dwells upon the development results of an experimental unit intended to be used as a part of a comprehensive program to study vibration-acoustic processes in order to obtain data on vibration of mechanical parts of a rolling stock in operation.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Boyarnikov A.V., Schelkanov A.V., Kazarin D.V., Tsurpal A.E., Yudin K.V., Aleksandrov I.V., Melk V.V. Measuring system for broadband vibration-acoustic processes // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 146-149.